History 262 Study Guide Test 1 ? Coker 1) What kinds of cross-cultural connections existed prior to 1400 CE? What factors explain the increasing interaction in the period from 1000 to 1400 CE? 3 Connections : Religious, Economic, and Political - Spread of religion and trading (Spread of Islam, The Islamic World) Ibn Battuta- ? Muslim scholar and traveler who is known for the account of his travels and excursions ? Journeys lasted for 30 years, and covered almost the entirety of the known Islamic world and beyond, extending from North Africa, West Africa, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe in the West, to the Middle East, Indian subcontinent, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China in the East, a distance readily surpassing that of his predecessors and his near-contemporary Marco Polo ? who documented his travels very accurately and provided some of the best sources for the Mongol Empire and the Great Khan ? Account of his journeys- The Rihla Silk Roads, Sea Lanes ? an extensive network of trade routes across the Asian continent, which were very important for technological advances as well as paths for many desired goods, soldiers, monks, etc.. ? the development of the Compass greatly influenced the effectiveness of the Indian Ocean and the Sea lanes? Exchanges: cinnamon, crops, rice, sugar cane, oranges, compasses from China, gunpowder, idea of a larger world out there to be explored The World System ? indentified 8 major interlocking circuits for trade Great Zimbabwe ? City surrounded by huge walls, established gold trade routes with Arabs and also part of the porcelain culture (bowls were found there).Pax Mongolica- ? ?Mongol Peace? ? Phrase coined by Western scholars to describe the stabilizing effects of the conquest of the Mongol Empire on the social, cultural and economic life of the inhabitants of the vast Eurasian territory they conquered in the 13th and 14th centuries. ? Used to describe the eased communication and commerce the unified administration helped to create, and the period of relative peace that followed the Mongol's flurry of conquests. ? The conquests of Genghis Khan effectively connected the Eastern world with the Western world, ruling a territory from Southeast Asia to Eastern Europe. Silk Road- ? Connecting trade centers across Asia and Europe, came under the sole rule of the Mongol Empire Marco Polo- ? Gained fame for his worldwide travels ? One of the first people to travel the silk road to China ? Travels of Battuta exceed Polo?s travels The Black Death- ? China ? Spread of fleas on rats, and a spread of several diseases ? Symptoms: rash, sores on groin, nausea, fever ? The infected died within a week Hong Wu and the Ming Dynasty- ? Re-established China after the chaos of plague ? Chinese beaurocrats ? The Ming Dynasty under Yongle launched a series of naval expeditions that went as far as Malindi in East Africa. Porcelain: the First Global Culture - ? Art form, mostly exported from China along the Silk Roads, greatly desired product among Europeans 2) What types of things were spread through long-distance trade? Religions- ? Buddhism, Islam, Christianity Biological species- ? Plants, food crops, animals, human populations, and disease pathogens What were the consequences of this growing interaction? Invasive plant and animal species that destroy native wildlife, destroyed human populations through epidemic diseases (black/bubonic plague), enlarged other populations through increased food supplies and richer diets. Technology : compass, gunpowder, porcelain 3) Compare Chinese and European expansion in the 15th and 16th centuries. European- ? Between 1400 and 1800 European mariners launched a series of exploratory voyages that took them to nearly all the earth?s waters. ? The expansion of European influence resulted in the establishment of global networks of transportation, communication, and exchange. ? The Reconquista- o Period of 800 years in the during which several Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain, Portugal) succeeded in retaking the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslims ? Henry the Navigator- o An important figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire, being responsible for the beginning of the European worldwide explorations. o Became aware of profit possibilities of trade routes ? expanded Portuguese trade ? Winds and Currents, Atlantic and Indian Oceans ? Portuguese Exploration- o Sailed with triangular sails towards the African coast ? India ? Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille- o Spanish king and queen ? Columbus? conception of the world- o Thought world was smaller than it really was o Western shore of Lake Michigan, runs into Winnebago Indians o Returned to Spain in complete disgrade ? Treaty of Tordesillas o Decision by Pope to divide new world (South America) between Spain & Portugal Chinese- ? Hong Wu and the Ming Dynasty o Hong Wu established the Ming Dynasty o Military leaders o Classic Confucian literature was base of knowledge for elites ? Zheng He?s Voyages o Led a fleet of 7 voyages (naval expeditions) visited entire Indian Ocean basin o Brought back animals (giraffes) ? Mansa Musa of Mali (Hajj to Mecca) ? Musa was a Muslim king in Africa that established a very successful kingdom that Ibn Battuta wrote about in his journals praising the wealth and safety of the community-like kingdom ? His trip to Mecca became very famous because he gave away so much gold to people that it upset the value of goods in the Cairo marketo Gold trade o Included hundreds of slaves o Basically passed out gold- bad for Egyptian government What factors account for the differences in approach between Europeans and Chinese? ? Geographical coincidence? ? Cultural difference? ? Political structure? ? Economic motivation? English East India Country and Dutch United East India Country- ? Joint-stock companies ? Granted exclusive rights to trade to more areas 4) Compare the expansion of various European powers. -How and why did the Portuguese and Spanish develop an early lead? -Why did the Dutch and English eventually surpass Portugal? -Portugal was the most prominent in the search for fresh resources and lands. Built the earliest trading-post empire. Portuguese vessels were able to overpower most other craft they encountered with heavy artillery. They ventured away from the coasts to supplement their own meager resources. Led to establishment of sugar plantations. ? Had the goal of spreading Christianity. -Spanish merchants built off info from Magellan and established a trade route between the Philippines and Mexico. -After 1415 Prince Henry the Navigator conquered the Moroccan port of Ceuta and sponsored a series of voyages down the west African coast. Portuguese merchants soon established fortified trading posts. -1488 Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope and entered the Indian Ocean. -Dutch and English: Passed Portugal because Portugal could not sustain its large seaborne trading empire. Built trading posts and seized Portuguese sites. Chris Columbus proposed sailing to the markets of Asia by a Western route and reached Caribbean. -2 Advantages: They (Dutch) sailed faster, cheaper, and more powerful ships which offered both an economic and a military edge over their competitors. -They conducted trade through an efficient form of commercial organization-the joint-stock company-which enabled investors to realize handsome profits while limiting the risk to their investments. -2 joint-stock companies: the English East India Company, and its Dutch counterpart, the United East India Company -Their charters granted them the right to buy, sell, build trading posts, and even make war. -Had advanced nautical technology, powerful military arsenal, efficient organization, and relentless pursuit of profit. -Paved the way for the conquest, settlement, and exploitation of the Americas by Europeans. 1-21: Ch. 20 5) What is the Columbian Exchange? What were the most important exchanges between the Americas and Afro-Eurasia? What were the consequences of these exchanges? -Definition: The Trans-Atlantic exchange of plants, animals, and diseases that followed European contact with the Americas at the end of the 15th century. -Involved the spread of human populations through transoceanic migration, voluntary or forced. -Disease: Smallpox and Syphilis-Mexico had declined by 90 percent within a century -Worst demographic calamity in all of world history. - Staple Food: (From Afro-Eurasia to the Americas) Wheat, Rice, Citrus fruits, maze Livestock(horses, cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, chickens) for meat and dairy, Vegetables including collard greens, okra, yams, Sugar, Coffee - (From the Americas to Afro-Eurasia) Medicines: Quinine, Tobacco (?), Staple foods: Maize (Corn), Potatoes, tomatoes, beans, peppers Chocolate -Sparked population growth due to increased nutritional value of diets enriched by the global exchange of food crops and animals. -Europeans traveled in large numbers to Western Hemisphere. 6) Some have described the Columbian Exchange as ?perhaps the greatest revolution in human history.? What role did accidents or unintended consequences play in this revolution? Refer to #5 - disease, population growth, economic damage, earth worms etc. 1-26: Ch. 21-22 7) What were the causes of the Reformation, and what factors explain the timing and remarkable influence of reformers? What were the consequences of the Reformation? -Martin Luther: a protestant reformer, attacked the corruption in the Catholic Church which later called for a reformation that was directed by the Council of Trent. Many people adopted the Lutheran faith after he spread this form of Christianity. He denounced the sale of Indulgences -In 1530?s dissidents known as Protestants organized movements in France, England, the Low Countries, Italy, and Spain.-Shattered religious unity of western Christendom -Luther published scores of works condemning the Roman Church through the benefit of the printing press. -He advocated the closure of monasteries, translation of the Bible from Latin into vernacular languages, and an end to priestly authority of the Pope himself. -Most importantly Luther believed that salvation could never be earned through good works or through the prayers of others. He argued that Humans could be saved only through faith in the promises of God as revealed in the Bible. -John Calvin composed an influential treatise, Institutes of the Christian Religion, that presented Protestant teachings as a coherent and organized package. -Printed editions appeared throughout Europe. -King Henry VIII wanted to divorce his wife, who had not borne a male heir, but the pope refused to allow him to do so. -His response was to sever relations with the Roman church and make himself supreme head of the Anglican church-an English pope, as it were. -His successors replaced Roman Catholic with Protestant doctrines and rituals. -By the late 16th century, Lutherans, Calvinists, and Anglicans in Europe had built communities large enough that a return to religious unity in western Christendom was inconceivable. -Catholic Reformation (Counter Reformation): -Their purpose was to clarify differences between Roman and Protestant churches, to persuade Protestants to return to the Roman church, and to deepen the sense of spirituality and religious commitment in their own community. -2 Institutions were important: the Council of Trent, and the Society of Jesus. -Council of Trent: was an assembly of high church officials who met intermittently to address matters of doctrine and reform. Defined the elements of Roman Catholic theology in detail and took steps to reform the church by demanding that church authorities observe strict standards of morality and requiring them to establish schools and seminaries to prepare priests. -Society of Jesus: sought to extend the boundaries of the reformed Roman church. The founder was St. Ignatius Loyola. He required that members of the society, known as Jesuits, complete a rigorous and advanced education in theology, philosophy, languages, history, literature, and science. They were the most prominent of early Christian missionaries making Christianity a global religion. -Consequences: Consolidation of strong centralized states (Spain, France, England) -Monarchs took advantage of religious quarrels to tighten control over their societies -In the 16th and 17th centuries fears that individuals were making alliances with the devil sparked a widespread hunt for witches. -Also led to war between Protestant and Roman Catholic communities. -King Phillip II attempted to force England to return to the Roman Catholic Church by sending the Spanish Armada to dethrone the Protestant Queen Elizabeth. -30 Years War: -The Holy Roman emperor attempted to force his Bohemian subjects to return to the Roman Catholic church. -The war damaged economies and societies throughout Europe and led to the deaths of about one-third of the German population. Important Terms : -Martin Luther, Major Categories of Reformation: Lutheran, Reformed (Calvinist), Anabaptist (Radical Reformation), Munster Rebellion, Society of Jesus (est. 1540), Ignatius Loyola, Printing Press, Witch Trials and Inquisition, Thirty Years War (1618-1648); Peace of Westphalia, Charles V and the Habsburg Empire, Absolutism: Louis XIV, Constitutionalism, Henry VIII and the English Reformation, Spanish Armada (1588); Elizabeth I. 8) What were the major political patterns and political developments in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries? (Similar to or different from developments in other parts of the world?) -Centralizing monarchs readily made use of religious issues in their efforts to strengthen their states and enhance their authority. -Rulers of these states devised a diplomatic system that sought to maintain order among the many independent and competitive European states. -During the early 16th century Charles V tried to establish the Holy Roman Empire as the preeminent political authority in Europe. -After 1438 the Habsburg family, with extensive dynastic holdings in Austria, dominated the Holy Roman Empire. -Through marriage alliances, they accumulated rights and titles to lands throughout Europe and beyond. When Charles V became emperor he did not extend his authority throughout Europe b/c he devoted his energy to the Lutheran movement and to putting down imperial princes who took advantage of religious controversy to assert their independence. -The French Kings allied with the Muslim Ottoman Turks against the emperor. -The Ottoman sultans did not want a powerful Christian empire to threaten their holdings in eastern Europe and the Mediterranean basin. -Charles? empire did not survive. -Public affairs fell to the various regional states that had emerged during the middle ages. -Rulers of these lands known as the ?new monarchs? marshaled their resources, curbed the nobility, and built strong centralized regimes. -New monarchs included Henry VIII of England, Louis XI and Francis I of France, and Fernando and Isabel of Spain. -With their increased income the new monarchs enlarged their administrative staffs, which enabled them to collect taxes and implement royal policies more reliably than before. -Disputes launched by the Protestant Reformation also helped monarchs increase their power. -The Spanish Inquisition-its original task was to ferret out those who secretly practiced Judaism or Islam, but Charles V charged it with responsibility also for detecting Protestant heresy in Spain. -European states developed along two lines: Constitutional states (recognized rights pertaining to individuals and representative institutions) and absolute monarchies(divine right of kings, kings derived their authority from God and served as ?God?s lieutenants upon earth?-The king made law and determined policy). -Peace of Westphalia: -European states ended the 30 years war with the peace of Westphalia which laid the foundations for a system of independent, competing states. -By the treaties terms, the European states regarded one another as sovereign and equal. They also mutually recognized their rights to organize their own domestic and religious affairs and agreed that political and diplomatic affairs were to be conducted by states acting in their own interests. -European religious unity had disappeared, and the era of the sovereign state had arrives. 9) Why were Europeans eventually able to dominate the Americas? -European peoples possessed powerful weapons, horses, and ships that provided them with technological advantages over the peoples they encountered in the Americas and Pacific Islands. -Most Europeans also enjoyed complete or partial immunity to diseases that caused devastating epidemics when introduced to the western hemisphere and Oceania. -Because of their technological advantages and the depopulation that followed from epidemic diseases, European peoples were able to establish a presence throughout the Americas. -They brought technologies unavailable to the peoples they encountered in the western hemisphere. -More important than technology, however, were the divisions between indigenous peoples that Europeans were able to exploit and the effects of epidemic diseases that devastated native societies. -Spanish conquerors toppled the Aztec and Inca empires and imposed their own rule in México and Peru.- Conquistadores and Pizarro. 11) Discuss the relationship between African elites and Europeans. What kinds of choices did African elites make, and why? Why did Europeans use African slaves? Commercial opportunities drew the Europeans to the coast of West Africa and the Atlantic. European merchants brought the first substantial opportunities for long distance trade which led to the siphoning of millions of slaves from their societies. King Nzinga Mbemba of Kongo ? appreciated Catholicism and its relationship to Monarchial rule. He became a devout catholic and converted all his subjects to Christianity .Kongo also traded with Portugal which brought wealth and recognition to Kongo but eventually led to its destruction. The Portuguese traded weapons for Slaves, copper, ivory and other high value items. This undermined the kings and their relationship fell apart. Portuguese continued to conquer and control sub Saharan Africa. Dona Beatriz (1684-1706) ? From Kongo began the Antonian movement when she proclaimed that St. Anthony had chosen her to communicate his messages. She gained the reputation for working miracles and curing disease. St. Anthony was the patron saint of Portugal. She said that Jesus was a black man and that the Kongo was the true holy land. She was accused of heresy and burned at the stake. Their efforts illustrate clearly the tendency of Kongolese Christians to fashion a faith that reflected their needs and concerns as well as those of the European missionaries. Atlantic slave Trade ? The origin of ?slave? comes from ?slav? which means like the people. Africans had always traded slaves but not at this magnitude. The dramatic increase was due to the large farming of sugar in the western hemisphere. These farms relied almost exclusively on slave labor. There were also few Indians in the America?s to have as work due to constant spread of disease. Many Slaves embarked upon the dreadful ?middle passage? where slaves traveled in horrible conditions which took four to six weeks to the Caribbean where heat, cold, and sickness took massive tolls on human life, mortality could exceed 50%. Hatian Revolution ? When the slaves of Saint Domingue revolted declared independence from France and renamed the land Haiti and est. a self governing republic. Struck fear into plantation owners. 12) What were the consequences of these connections for Africa? for the Atlantic world? - European Connections : Many people took advantage of the slave trade to obtain firearms from European merchants and build powerful estates. Africa suffered serious losses from the slave trade. The Atlantic slave trade deprived African societies of about sixteen million people. Populations also increased through the American food crops and diets. Violence also escalated due to the desire for guns in exchange for slaves. Africa also received many new trade products and manufactured goods in exchange for slaves. African wealth and power came from the control of human labor. The Atlantic slave trade profoundly influenced the development of societies throughout the Atlantic Ocean basin. Human Cargoes also supplied small plantations with labor which quickly led to wealthy sugar producing lands. 13) Compare and contrast the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires. -What challenges did the empires face? -How did leaders address these challenges? -What legacies did these empires leave? Ottomans : Ruled a powerful empire that expanded from its base in Anatolia to embrace much of eastern Europe, Egypt, and N. Africa. They were the heirs of Rome and their warriors took spoils and revenues which enriched their Ghazi or ?sword of God? and their central government. They had a powerful military that made effective use of gunpowder weapons and Jannissaries ?new troops? which were slave troops that received training to become soldiers. Mehmed the conqueror captured Constantinople and greatly contributed to the Ottoman expansion and laid the foundations for a tightly centralized monarchy. The peak of the Ottoman expansion ended under Suleyman ?the magnificent? Safavid Empire: Ruled mostly Iran and Persia founded by Shah Ismail where he enforced the Religion of Twelver Shiism upon his people which later became known as Shiites. The Ottomans (Sunni) and Safavids (Shiites) were bitter rivals. The Safavids knew of gunpowder but rarely took advantage of it b/c they considered it un-manly. They relied heavily on the qizilbash or their cavalry but often suffered massive casualties. Shah Abbas the Great later revitalized the empire and military and expanded their territory. Mughal Empire : Ruled much of Central Asia, but instead of fighting on behalf of Islam, Babur ?the Tiger? fought mostly as a soldier of fortune and spoils of war. He claimed descent from Chinggis Khan and Tamerlane. He used the aid of gunpowder and artillery often, but cared little for the land he conquered. Babur?s grandson Akbar became the next great leader and created a centralized administrative structure that regulated various provinces. Instead of Islam, he imposed a syncretic religion called the ?Divine Faith.? They destroyed many hindu temples and replaced them with Mosques including the Shah mosque and the Taj Mahal. Challenges: Religious Diversity, poor economic and technological improvement, incompetent rulers, constant war ? took toll on resources Legacies: Taj Mahal, Sunni vs Shiite Conclusion: All three had dynasties that originated with nomadic, Turkish speaking peoples from the steppes of central Asia. They also all retained political and cultural traditions that their ancestors had adopted on the steppes, but also adapted readily to city based agricultural societies that they conquered. They all made use of gunpowder, especially the Ottomans and all three embraced Islam and Islamic values. They each made little investment in economical and technological development which contributed to their collapse around the mid eighteenth century. Each government was designed differently. 14) How do societies deal with diversity? - The Mughal empire put taxes on any non-Muslims ?Jizya?. Ottomans included a large numbers of Christians and Jews, while the Safavid embraced Zoroastrians, Jews and Christians. The Mughal empire was mostly Hindu but very diverse. Akbar was especially tolerant and worked to find religious synthesis that would serve as a cultural foundation for unity in his empire and ?Divine Faith? which was a combination of several beliefs. Most Islam empires did not require conquered people to convert to Islam but extended the status of a ?dhimmi? or protected people. In the Mughal Empire Muslims and Hindus worked closely together, but there was still tension between the two because Muslims were worried that toleration might lead to their absorption into Hindu society. 15) In what ways did Chinese and Japanese leaders attempt to establish order and stability between the 15th and 18th centuries? To what extent were these various efforts successful? -When the Yuan dynasty came to an end, the Ming emperors who succeeded it sought to erase all signs of Mongol influence and restore traditional ways to China. -Looking to the Tang and Song dynasties for inspiration, they built a powerful imperial state, revived the civil service staffed by Confucian scholars, and promoted Confucian thought. -Ming and Qing emperors alike were deeply conservative: their principal concern was to maintain stability in a large agrarian society, so they adopted policies that favored Chinese political and cultural traditions. -When the Yuan dynasty collapsed, the Ming dynasty restored native rule to China. Hongwu founder of the Ming (?brilliant?) dynasty, built a tightly centralized state. -As emperor, Hongwu made extensive use of mandarins, imperial officials who oversaw implementation of government policies throughout China. -He also placed great trust in eunuchs on the assumption that they could not generate families who might one day challenge imperial authority. -In 1421 Yongle moved the capital from Nanjing in the south to Beijing to keep closer watch on the Mongols and other nomadic peoples in the north. -The later Ming emperors sought to protect their realm by building new fortifications, including the Great Wall of China, along the northern border. -The Ming emperors also set out to eradicate Mongol and other foreign influences and to create a stable society in the image of the Chinese past. Restoration for Chinese traditions facilitated the restoration of institutions that the Mongols had ignored or suppressed. The Govnt. sponsored study of Chinese cultural traditions, especially Confucianism and the reestablishment of imperial academies and regional colleges. Most important, the Ming state restored the system of civil service examinations that Mongol rulers had neglected. -The vigor of early Ming rule did not survive beyond the mid-sixteenth century, when a series of problems weakened the dynasty. From 1520s to the 1560s, pirates and smugglers operated almost at will along the east coast of China. -The later Ming emperors lived extravagantly in the Forbidden City, a vast imperial enclave in Beijing, and received news about the outside world only from eunuch servants and administrators. The emperors sometimes ignored government affairs for decades on end, while powerful eunuchs won favor by providing for their amusement. As the eunuch?s influence increased, corruption and inefficiency spread throughout the government and weakened the Ming state. -When a series of famines struck China during the early seventeenth century, the government was unable to organize effective relief efforts. During the 1630s peasants organized revolts throughout China. -When the Ming dynasty fell, Manchus poured south into China from their homeland of Manchuria. -The victors proclaimed a new dynasty, the Qing (?pure?), which ruled China until the early twentieth century. -The Manchus were careful to preserve their own ethnic and cultural identity. They outlawed intermarriage between Manchus and Chinese and forbade Chinese to travel to Manchuria or to learn the Manchurian language. Qing authorities also forced Chinese men to shave the front of their heads and grow a Manchu-style queue as a sign of submission to the dynasty. -The long reigns of the emperors Kangxi and Qianlong helped mute the tensions between Manchus and Chinese and allowed the Manchus to consolidate their hold on China. -Qianlong-during his long, stable, and prosperous reign, the imperial treasury bulged so much that on four occasions Qianlong canceled tax collections. -By modeling their governmental structure on the centralized imperial states of earlier Chinese dynasties, the Ming and Qing emperors succeeded in their goal of restoring and maintaining traditional ways in China. -They also sought to preserve the traditional hierarchical and patriarchal social order. Yet, while the emperors promoted conservative political and social policies, China experienced economic and social changes, partly as a result of influences from abroad. -Agricultural production increased dramatically and fueled rapid population growth, and global trade brought China enormous wealth. These developments deeply influenced Chinese society and partly undermined the stability that the Ming and Qing emperors sought to preserve. Important Terms: -Hongwu (r. 1367-1398) and the Ming Dynasty, Zheng He?s treasure fleet; The Forbidden City, Great Wall, Qing Dynasty: the Queue, The Kangxi Dictionary Quinlong?s ?Complete Library of the Four Treasuries?, Zhu Xi (1130-1200); Filial Piety, Polo player (Tang dynasty); Foot binding (Qing dynasty), Tokagawa Shogun, Sakoku? and the ?Dutch Learning?, Ihara Saikaku, Ukiyo: ?Floating World?, Theatre: Kabuki and Bunraku, Population Growth Japan and China. 17) Describe the main characteristics of Renaissance humanism, the Scientific Revolution, and the Enlightenment. In what ways are these movements connected? Renaissance humanism was a European intellectual movement that was a crucial component of the Renaissance. The humanist movement developed from the rediscovery of classical Latin and Greek texts. Humanism described a curriculum that centered on grammar, rhetoric, moral philosophy, poetry and history as studied through the classical authors. Erasmus was one of the greatest humanist scholars and theologians. Humanists believed that, although God created the universe, it was humans that had developed and industrialized it. Art began to reflect the individual during this time, which is evidenced by Michelangelo?s ?David.? In the Scientific Revolution (16th-17th century), science began to replace magic. There was a large emphasis on the advancement of math and science. Astrology was replaced by astronomy, and alchemy was replaced with calculus. Kepler, Newton, Galileo, and Copernicus were key people in the SR. Kepler is credited with discovering elliptical orbits of the planets. is known for his Principia Mathematica, in which he talks about calculus and gravity. Galileo was known for his heliocentric theory of the universe, and Copernicus was famous for his ?Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres.? The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement in the 18th century that sought to elevate science. It challenged the conventions in religion and politics. Thinkers of this time were generally optimistic, and there was confidence in sensory data. Enlightenment thinkers felt that humans must be liberated to fulfill their full potential, which is evidenced by the idea of the Noble Savage. Voltaire was a key Enlightenment thinker. He was a deist, who attacked the French monarchy and Roman Catholic Church. His view was ?Ecrasez l?infame,? which meant ?crush the damn thing!? The Enlightenment also advocated laissez-faire economics. They are all intellectual movements that focused on the advancement of art, science, and mathematics. They emphasized the individual and were critical of the church and politics of the time. Renaissance Humanism: Ad fontes!- ?to the fountain? slogan for humanism Erasmus (1466-1536)- one of the greatest Humanist scholars Scientific Revolution Johannes Kepler- mathematician for holy Roman empire- theory that planets revolves around sun in elliptical orbits, gave astrological advise to emperors (horoscopes) Isaac Newton- invented calculus and universal laws of motion (gravity) (1643-1727) Principia Mathematicia (1687), however wrote more on religion than math; Newton was interested in finding the ?philosophers stone? which turned metal into gold. Science began to move away from magic and to more rational thinking Geo-centrism vs. Helio-centrism Copernicus, ?Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres? (1543)- proposed earth was one of several planets that revolved around sun, took over 100 years to re-mold ideas of the universe ?planet?- from Greek word wanderer ?The Nobel Savage?- the Enlightenment, Native American life style The Enlightenment - 18th century, looked for reason in human behavior and institutions, not traditional academics, generally optimistic about power of science, humans were essentially good The French Encyclopedia ( 1751-1772) One of the most prominent Enlightenment leaders - Voltaire (1694-1778)- great critic of the Catholic church- battle cry against the church was ?Ecrasez l?infame? meaning ?crush the infamous thing!? Deism-believed in God, but not supernatural teachings eg. Resurrection Mercantilism vs. Laissez-Faire economics (no government regulation) Enlightenment - new ideas about economic freedom (strict imperialistic control)-closed system of trade was not effective. Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (1776)- argued economic freedom would cause equality. Wealth of Nations 18) What are the strengths and weaknesses of referring to the European intellectual and cultural developments of the 15th to 18th century as ?revolutionary?? Strengths : The advancements made in mathematics and science, such as calculus and the theory of gravity, were truly revolutionary at the time. The allowed for a greater understanding of the universe and how it functions Weaknesses: while the cultural developments were profound, much of what was learned and discovered during this time was based on classical Greek, Roman, and Latin models. In this way, it was more of a rediscovery of old texts and ideas rather than ?revolutionary? new ones. 19) What was the relationship between these intellectual trends and religion? In each movement, people began to diverge from the church. In the Renaissance for example, art became more secular. The Scientific revolution and enlightenment were critical of the church and emphasized the individual. There was a general trend toward separation from religious influence. 20) What factors led to political revolutions in America, France, and Haiti? In what ways were the revolutions connected? - Revolution first broke out in the British colonies of North America where colonists founded a new republic. Later French revolutionaries abolished the monarchy and recognized French Society. IN Saint Domingue, revolution led to the abolition of slavery as well as independence from French rule. American Revolution: The French and Indian war was an expensive conflict in which British and French forces battled each other in Europe and India. Because of the financial difficulties that arose after the war, an array of taxes were forced upon North America which began multiple protests claiming that N. America should be represented within parliament: ?no taxation without representation.? They used boycotts and intimidation which heightened tension. In 1776, N. America adopted the declaration of Independence which was a first in enlightenment thinking and concluded that the colonies were free and independent states. This led to the American Revolution in which George Washington provided strong military leadership and tactics. After America?s victory, Britain recognized America?s independence. In 1787, they drafted the Constitution. The French Revolution: French revolutionaries sought complete replacement of political, social, and cultural structure. Serious financial and political problems set the path for revolution when King Louis 16th became king he inherited large debt. Louis called the The Estates General: 1st Estate: the Catholic Church (100,000 clergy), 2nd Estate: the French Nobility (400,000), 3rd Estate: everyone else. In hopes of new taxes, he was met with resentment from all three classes. In 1789, a Parisian crowd stormed the Bastille and killed the defenders. This ?Great Fear? spread throughout the country and members of the lower class destroyed noble offices, monasteries, and public records offices. The national assembly made the ?Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen?, which proclaimed the equality of all man and asserted individual rights. In 1792, revolutionary leaders declared war on Spain, Britain, and the Netherlands which caused them to create the convention which proclaimed France as a republic. Maximillien Robespierre was a Jacobin radical who dominated the convention and ran the committee for public safety who believed passionately in the need for restructure. They made special use of the Guillotine which they executed thousands of people for being suspected enemies of the Revolution. Napoleon Bonaparte seized control in 1799 and brought political stability to France with the advent of the Civil Code which affirmed the political and legal equality of all adult men and established a merit based society in which talent became more important than social standing. Haitian Revolution: The only successful slave revolt in history. The population was about forty thousand white French settlers and about five hundred thousand black slaves. White residents stood at the top of society. The slave worked in the fields under brutal conditions. The American and French revolutions paved the way for revolt in Saint Domingue after about five hundred slave got back from the American war for independence. In 1791, civil war broke out between whites and black slaves. It was organized by a vodou priest named Boukman and about 12,000 slaves attacked white settlers and burning homes. Eventually slaves defeated the settlers and foreign military forces with large help from Francois Domingue Toussaint ?Louverture? who was a skilled organizer and built a strong military. In 1801 he issued a constitution granting equality to all citizens. 21) What were the consequences of these revolutions? In what ways did the revolutions turn out differently than the revolutionaries intended? In each revolution, many people lost their lives. Each country also experienced a large amount of debt. In the American Revolution 1/5 of the population remained loyal to Britain, which was not the intension of breaking free from the British government. The French Revolution led to more war and conflict with other European Nations. 22) What factors led to the independence movements in Latin America? How were these movements connected to other political revolutions in the Atlantic world? Simon Bolivar and Gran Colombia: he was a creole from S. America who led the movement for independence from Spain. He assembled an army that surprised and crushed the Spanish Army in Colombia. In 1825: Creole forces overcame Spanish Armies and disposed of Spanish rulers throughout S. America. Bolivar was greatly influenced by enlightenment ideas, and the revolution hastened the end of slavery. -Simon Bolivar and Gran Colombia; Spanish Empire; Francisco Goya, ?The Third of May; Juntas, the Cortes, and the Spanish Constitution of 1812; Latin American Social Categories: Peninsulares: Spanish-born whites, Creoles: American-born whites, Mestizos: indigenous and white parentage, Mulattoes: white and African parentage, Zambos: indigenous and African parentage; Miguel Hidalgo and Mexican Independence; ?I fear peace more than war? (Simón Bolívar); 19th Century U.S. expansion: Manifest Destiny; Slavery?s defenders and critics; The Union preserved; Migrations and Industrial Expansion; The Transcontinental Railroad; Changing relationships within the Americas? Why?: Short-sighted policies?, Structural factors?, Timing of revolutions?. 23) In the 19th century, the U.S. experienced relative political stability and economic growth, while Latin America was relatively underdeveloped, impoverished, and politically unstable. Why? Simon Bolivar: Came from Gran Columbia who was a charismatic military leader. He inspired enlightenment ideas and formed a republic of the South American Countries. He said that Latin America was ?ungovernable? because there were too many sovereign states. N. America saw a rise in agriculture largely due to the work of slaves. This helped provide stability of the southern economy. Westward expansion brought resources, land, and immigrants. Immigrants were cheap labor which also helped stability. Bolivar granted free status for many individuals in Gran Columbia. Slavery was abolished in other areas as well. However this did not grant them political equality. Without the labor of slaves and the political imbalance of citizens, many South American countries did not mesh and form a united front as N. America did. They never developed a constitution or market which hurt their economy and severed ties between states. 24) What did Bolivar mean when he said that ?those who serve the revolution plough the sea?? How do you think other revolutionaries might respond to Bolivar?s commentary? He basically said that to be a revolutionary was pointless because South America was ?ungovernable? 2-23: Ch. 27 25) Why did industrial revolution develop first in Britain and not some other part of the world (such as the Yangtze River Delta in China)? British Isles had a large coal deposits that were in easy reach of water transportation. They also increased their iron production and added steam engines to make the mining process more productive. Due to deforestation in China, there was a wood shortage. Colonists in Americas relieved British economic pressures because they had slaves working with sugar and cotton production. Trading with the American colonists helped the British economy. Immigration to America from Britain also relieved the British population. 26) What were the most significant technological and organization innovations associated with the industrialization, and what were the consequences of industrialization? Innovations: flying shuttle, spinning mule, power loom. The steam engine led to early transportation of people and goods. The factory system was an organization innovation. Alcohol was no longer allowed at the workplace. Unskilled labor produced more goods at cheaper prices. Other technological innovations were the assembly line, developed by Henry Ford, and interchangeable parts, introduced by Eli Whitney. Another organization was Taylorism, in which workers were assessed for their skills to see where they could be best used. Consequences: Labor Unions, air pollution
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