Form of workplace decision making where the employees (or students) themselves come to the decisions that make the institution work. Relevant to the French protests of May 1968 which was triggered by a group of disgruntled students who felt that they deserved more control over their academic careers. Their complaints included lack of control over the curriculum (which they felt was old fashioned), the inaccessibility of their professors, and the over crowdedness of their scholastic institutions.
Battle of Kosovo
Big Sig: The Battle of Kosovo came to be seen as a symbol of Serbian patriotism and desire for independence in the 19th century rise of nationalism under Ottoman rule, and its significance for Serbian nationalism returned to prominence during the breakup of Yugoslavia and the Kosovo War when Slobodan Milošević invoked it during an important speech.
Conference that regulated European colonization and trade in Africa. Coincided with Germany’s emergence as an imperial power. Sped up the colonization of Africa because once each nation had agreed on the terms of colonization and which territories they could rightfully colonize, they no longer had to worry about resistance from each other and could focus more on expanding their empires. Soldiers and explorers become heroes, boosts nationalism as each country tries to expand its empire
Barricades were used to stop armies’ advancement through cities to stop revolts. Became symbolic to revolutions, especially in the mid 1800s (ie 1948, the year of revolutions) when liberalism was taking off and people were demanding expansions of their rights and powers.
Post WWI, the women who stepped up and worked in the munitions factories during the wartime absence of the normal male labor force had to deal with chemicals in the factories that turned their skin yellow. This is an emergence of the trend for women to take the reigns of the economy while the men fought the wars. This gave the women an opportunity to gain some independence which some men resented as they were “fighting and dying while the women back home were becoming indepenent.
“Cape to Cairo”
Uncompleted project to connect the north and south poles of Africa by railway. Highly endorsed by Cecil Rhodes who envisioned a string of British territories the entire length of Africa. Strongly relates to the imperial race at the end of the 19th century in Africa as this project would sharply increase British colonies’ prosperity with an extended trade route along the entirety of the continent.
Captain Chris Baldry
The WWI ‘soldier’ from Rebecca West’s novel The Return of the Soldier. The story involves Chris’s wife Kitty and cousin Jenny receiving news from a woman named Margaret Grey (Chris’s first love) that Chris sustained a head injury leaving him shell-shocked and unable to remember his wife (and instead thinks he is still in love with Margaret). This is significant because it points out the atrocious conditions in which the soldiers returned.
U.S. airmail pilot who flew the first solo non-stop transatlantic flight from Long Island to Paris. He was greatly received as a hero by the Europeans; caused the first modern traffic jam. This event was a part of the ‘American cultural invasion of Europe’ in the post WWI era that arose from America’s “unsophisticated and healthy” image which was appealing to a ravished Europe. This included Europe’s introduction of jazz and Josephine Baker’s career explosion in Paris. nonviolent airplanes.
British Prime Minister starting in 1945. Led the Labour party to a landslide victory over Churchill’s conservative party. He is important because he instituted the National Health and Insurance Acts which were kept in place by Churchill following his re-election. Talk about liberalism and the efforts of some European nations to create stronger economic ties with one another: French-German-Benelux coal & steel initiative, EEC (Treaty of Rome) which made trade easier. <= “new Europe”
Dien Bien Phu
Battle between Vietnam and France in the indo-china war where the French lost. First time a colonized country was able to evolve from guerrilla warfare to a full fledged army that could defeat a western power. It was the beginning of the end to France’s colonization/empire. BigSig: Decreased the power and respect of France in terms of indo-china. America ended up getting involved, albeit limitedly, but enough to reflect its position as a growing global power. Led to Geneva Accords, split Vietnam
A sports arena outside Paris that was used as an internment camp to house Jews before being deported to the Nazis. This place sent more than 63,000 Jews to German extermination camps, and only 2,000 were rescued when allied forces invaded the camp. This event is significant n that it shows how anti-Semitism was not just limited to Nazi Germany, but France cooperated with the Nazi Regime’s ideals by themselves.
Was Winston Churchill’s evacuation of Allied soldiers from the beaches and the harbor of Dunkirk, France. Even thought the British were retreating, it was seen as a victory and boosted national morale because the British people united and evacuated hundreds of thousands of soldiers using some military as well as personal watercraft. The French saw this as a betrayal and would hold it against Britain for the rest of the war. This was because the British left many of their troops stranded.
Earl of Kandahar
Born in India, his father was a member of the east India company. At age 13 he went to school in England at a military academy which trained people to work for the east India company. Ends up leading Mafeking out of siege.
German for “task forces”, group of soldiers who followed the German army as they moved through Poland, Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet Union rounding up Jews and other ‘unfavorables’. The Einsatzgruppen would force these people to dig trenches that would serve as their graves before shooting them at point blank range. This is significant because it is the first time that the Germans violate the Soviet Non-aggression Pact. Signified the atrocities of mass genocide of a population.
A set of French Laws which established free education, in which the church is pushed out of the curriculum. This came along with the new ideas of liberalism and anti-clerical movements of the late 19th century and allowed people to get a somewhat unbiased education
Was the policy of maximal publicity, openness, and transparency in the activities of all government institutions in the Soviet Union, together with freedom of information, introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev in the second half of the 1980s. This was a revolutionary idea because it made it acceptable to speak one’s mind about political leaders and policies. Signifies how people were gaining more liberties and freedoms even in a communist government
Overthrow of King James II of England by Parliament. Mary II and William of Orange brought in to rule jointly. BigSig: introduction of the Constitutional Monarchy where the rulers are explicitly chosen by the grace of Parliament, NOT BY GOD. Also, this change was brought about without bloodshed.
A model of how conflicts arise and are resolved. The model consists of a thesis, which gives rise to its reaction, or antithesis, which contradicts or negates the thesis, and the synthesis which is the resolution of the former two. This model can be applied to any revolution where a government makes a policy that does not agree with a population
Supporter of Charles Darwin, believed that people inherently act for their own self-interest. Most famous for his concept of “survival of the fittest”. Credited for applying Darwin’s theory of natural selection to society, called Social Darwinism. Goes along with the ideals of neo-classic liberalism that was prominent during his era (mid to late 19th century) that pushed for people to have individual freedom with very little government involvement.
“Night of Broken Glass” November of 1938, Hitler tapped into the Germany’s strong emotional need for a scapegoat during the economic struggle caused by the Carthaginian peace left by the Treaty of Versailles. He did this by vilifying the Jews and preaching anti-Semitic ideals to the German people. People set out destroying Jewish owned businesses, rounding up thousands of Jewish men to be sent to concentration camps, and ransacking their homes and Synagogues. Signified the holocaust.
A term that is related to the post-WWI cultural crisis where there was an overwhelming sense of loss among those who were close to the soldiers killed in battle. ‘Lost Generation’ refers in a physical sense to the generation of young men who died before their time and could never make their impact on society. In an emotional sense, the term refers to the surviving soldiers who came back from war ‘lost’ and had trouble fitting back into society. Led to Hedonism(alcoholics) and art called Dadaism
Massacre of Transnonian Street
a workers riot that got out of hand and resulted in 18 civilians getting killed as well as one member of the French national guard. The workers moved from the countrysides to the industrial centers, for a chance a better life as well as higher pay. Poor conditions led to discontent. Signifies the exploitation of the growing labor force due to the Industrial Revolution with terrible working conditions and poor pay.
National Geographic Societies
During the age of nation building and empires (late 18th century), explorers were viewed as national heroes as they ventured the globe searching for new territories for their countries. This ‘cult of the explorer’ was a source of great nationalism and ties to the idea of Social Darwinism as the biggest and strongest countries could claim the biggest empires
Childhood began to be seen as a very special time of innocence and protection, and the story of Peter Pan embodied this idea. Adults carried the book around as a relic of this special time which reflected society’s value of childhood and its need for protection. This affection towards Peter Pan signified the changing ideals of society towards a more liberal standpoint which spanned across the educational system, as well as government efforts towards progress.
Personal Rule of Charles I
was the period when Charles I of England ruled without recourse from Parliament. His policies were unfavorable to the people and his actions led to Parliament declaring war against him, hence the English Civil War in 1642. Oliver Cromwell was a key figure in Parliament’s victory and Charles I tried to flee the country in 1646. He is captured and executed by 1649. This was a big deal for parliament to decide that the king wasn’t doing his job and take measures to remove him from power.
Pork Fat/Beef Fat
Refers to the religious controversy during the British imperialism in India. There were rumors circulating that the British had greased the ammunition supply with beef and pork fat, which is viewed as sacrilegious to the Hindus and Muslims. This was seen as the final spark that led to the Indian Rebellion of 1857, or the Sepoy Mutiny.
Stemming from the Industrial Revolution, large portions of populations began moving away from their pre-IR agricultural lifestyles and towards the cities where they became part of the working class. The term proletarianization has a negative connotation to it as many freedoms of the people were stripped away with the introduction of their bad housing and long days of labor. Also this idea signifies the transformation of peoples’ identities to ‘the workers’ rather than being seen as individuals.
Red Flag of the Commune
The red flag became a symbol for the communist parties of Europe and the struggles of the working class, the ‘social misery’ created by industrialism. Very important during the Paris Commune (1871) where workers in Paris were besieged and 26k were killed for trying to gain some national power. This shows the power of symbols as a means to change, like how barricades became a symbolic gesture to indicate rebellion
Right to Work
A principle established by the February Revolutions in France during 1948’s wave of revolutions. Citizens disgruntled by the lack of jobs gathered in a series of ‘banquets’ to provide a legal outlet for popular criticism of the regime since political gatherings were outlawed by the government. When Louis Phillipe and his Government caught wind of the Banquet Campaign and forbade it. A revolution ensued which led to Phillipe’s abdication as he fled the country
when workers would throw their sabots (wooden shoes) into the wooden gears of the textile looms to break the cogs, feeling the automated machines would render the human workers obsolete. the ‘skill’ of skilled workers was being taken out of the job. This led to many fearing that the machines would put them out of work, as well as taking the joy and pride out of skilled labor. Employees no longer worked on a product until its finish but were assigned to the same task on an assembly line.
A historical term that is related to trading through 3 different ports. Rum, molasses, and salves were traded between Africa, England, and the Caribbean islands, the rum and molasses the slaves produced were sent to England for consumption.
A rural area in France that saw a resistance to the French Revolution. Shows that not everybody was in favor of revolution.
Women of Petrograd
During the Year of Revolutions (February revolution in Petrograd specifically), the hard economic times and lack of food angered many women who could not feed their children and families. They initiated a strike which effectively shut down all industrial enterprises in the city. Ultimately led to the Tsar’s abdication. Shows the power of the people, and especially women, who didn’t have many rights at the time.
signal that people are having a revolution, says hey look at me over here, were doing big things
leader at beginning of soviet union, in charge of what info the people received. Plays into communist government of controlling the people
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