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What role did Democratic-Republican Societies have in the politics of the 1790s?
Critical of George Wash, popped up in 1793 and 35 from Maine to Georgia by 1794. Aroused interest and supported candidates. Not a party, more of a pressure group that were mostly republican. Stimulated political discussion. Denounced by federalist and Washington. Accused of inciting domestic rebellion.
Lyon was born in Ireland, indentured servant, then newspaper editor. Congressmen made fun of how he spoke and dressed. Spit on Griswold for challenging his writing. Griswold bought a walking stick, and beat Lyon on the floor of the senate.
What led to the Louisiana Purchase in 1803?
New Orleans was pretty much the only successful port city in the Gulf. Owned by Spain, who let Americans use it and the Mississippi River for trade. Spain sold it to France, who no longer let Americans use it. Jefferson feared it would eventually lead to war, so he agreed to buy it for $15 million (borrowed from UK on 6% interest)
Discuss the significance of Marbury v. Madison.
Discuss the significance of Gabriel’s Rebellion (1800).
Series of economic changes in America. Rapid transportation of goods and info(steamboats, canals, railroads, telegraph) Introduction of factories. People could buy more goods instead of making each one. Lost economic freedom when they started working for someone else. Death of craft artisan and rise of factory worker. Instead of being experts in the whole process, they repetitively did one task. Women began working. Allowed for enterprises to grow in towns through consolidation of capital.
Terrible conditions- windows nailed shut year round, humid for the yarn, machines were loud and dusty. 1830’s- less money, more work. Women began to walk out and quit. Tragic because of the terrible conditions, etc. Uplifting because it was the first time that large numbers of women participated in the work force. Also, united and escaped the conditions
What were the Workingman’s Parties and how did they influence labor relations in the 1820s and 1830s?
What was “male continence” and “complex marriage” in the Oneida Community? How did they fit in with the overall mission of the Oneida Community?
Men could not ejaculate, in or out, but women could orgasm. Had to practice on old ladies until they could control themselves. Complex marriage meant that no one man could marry one women. Anyone could have sex with anyone. Only rules: 1. had to be agreed on by both parties 2. Had to be approved by third party. Virgins were given to elders Reflected ideals of sexual equality and community. No one person owned one thing, everyone shared.
Jackson saw that the bank held a lot of influence over the nation's finances. He made his opposition to the bank clear, and when the bank's president (along with Henry Clay) applied to renew the bank's charter in 1828, Jackson vetoed it. A few years later, he began removing all federal deposits from the bank. As a result, bank president Biddle tried to collect on loans across the country, leading to a financial crisis that citizens wound up blaming on the bank. The charter went out in 1836.
Dems- Jackson supporters. Negative liberty. Wanted a limited weak gov, no economic regulation, Self determination
Whigs- Those who opposed Jackson (northern reformers)Positive Liberty, liberty=power, tariffs on property, gov. promotes economy, internal improvements, regulate moral behavior
By the 1840s, yearly consumption of alcohol had dropped by more than 50%, and presumably enabled factories to produce their goods faster. Marsh Washington Societies started checking the breathe of their husbands when they got home from work. Women started taking hatchets to booze. Goal shifted from temperance to abstinence. Consumption went down, and in 1851, Maine became the first state to outlaw its manufacture and sale.
Quaker newspaper editor of the most vocal and widely spread abolitionism newspaper in America. Founder of American anti-slavery society. Wanted immediate emancipation and civil equality. He was supported by black abolitionists, one going so far as to send him $60 to help pay for the paper. WLG made sure that those around him were aware of the atrocities committed to slaves through slavery. Created American Antislave Society
How did the emergence of American popular culture reflect the Market Revolution and the changing nature of work?
Americas first daredevil. Child laborer who entertained local boys by jumping off the mill’s dam. Drew large crowds after they were publicized. Jumped from higher and higher places. Eventually died after jumping from Niagara falls drunk. Icon for working class because most pop-culture was for urban north.
Minstrel Shows performed in blackface and tried to mimic black culture. Reinforced working-class prejudice. These shows were so widely popular that by the 1850s most cities had some form of minstrel theater. This is a stern reminder that calls for abolition by whites did not necessarily mean a call for equality; many white abolitionists viewed blacks as inferior (though still undeserving of slavery).
“silent sabotage”- poor work, breaking tools, abusing animals, feigning illness, stealing food. Less subtle forms of resistance included arson, poison, and armed assault. Stealing themselves- ran away depriving master of financial investment. Had to pay for ad, search party. About 1000 successful escapes a year, mostly young men. Led to outright revolts. Despite worsening conditions for blacks in this time period, we see that they remain hopeful and defiant, not giving up on freedom
At first it was means of control for the masters. Overseen by white preacher who talked about the immorality of theft and disobedience. Then held secret congregations with black preachers who showed their biblical knowledge. Very emotional worship. Slaves related to the Israelites in Egypt, as well as other underdogs like Jonah and the Whale and David and Goliath. The Christian message of brotherhood and then equality of all souls before the creator offered an irrefutable indictment of slavery.
Southerners opposed CA because it upset balance in congress. Henry Clay proposes
1. California enters as free state (North)
2. Slave Trade abolished in D.C. (North)
3. Assumption of Texas Debt (meh)
4. Splitting of New Mexico Territory (meh)
5. New Fugitive Slave Law (South)
6. Slavery in remaining territories left to white settlers.(South)
Led to sectional debate and Calhoun refused compromise
This pissed off the North pretty bad, and while Southerners were rather indifferent to the bill at its inception, the rage of the North unified the South behind the Act. Douglas barely got it passed, shedding a bright light on exactly how divided the country was on the subject of the expansion of slavery. It’s important because it shattered Dems and Whigs. Whigs collapsed in the next two years.
Pro-slavery, voted in KS. In election for congressional delegate, only half of the votes were actually from registered citizens. Threatened judges with guns. Set up base in Lecompton, outlawed abolitionist literature, outlawed offices to men who would not swear allegiance to slavery. The violence came to a head when the Border Ruffians destroyed Lawrence in what has been called the “Sack of Lawrence”. This caused the issue of “Bleeding Kansas” to become a heated topic in the U.S. Congress.
Scott sues for freedom. He resided in IL & WI, free states, but did that make him free? 6-3 vote against Scott and he was voted back into slavery. Buchanan was president and forces Justice Greer to vote against Scott, changing it from a 5-4. Poses problems for popular sovereignty. Republicans believe that a great "slave power" conspiracy gripped nation. Main topic of debate for Lincoln-Douglas debates. Separates north and south further. Dred Scott alters national politics
Created by founder of the constitutional party, former whig/know-nothing, John Crittenden. Compromise guaranteed future of slavery where it already existed, extension of MO compromise line to the Pacific, divided territories between slave and free “now held, or hereafter acquired”. Seceding states rejected the plan, so did lincoln. He was afraid if we got Mexico (“hereafter acquire,”) it would all be slave.
Initially not allowed to fight because there was a fear whites wouldn’t fight, and Lincoln didn’t want to alienate border states. Later they were “employed” in union as cooks, laundresses, and laborers. Eventually they were enlisted in the military. For some it was bad- Segregated units, abusive officers, lower pay. For others, they rose to commissioned office and went on to lead great military careers. After the emancipation proclamation, final 2 yrs of war, did equal protection come under law
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