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Native-born elites in the Spanish colonies. (pron. KREE-ohls)
Socially radical peasant insurrection that began in Mexico in 1810 and that was led by the priests Miguel Hidalgo and José Morelos. (pron. ee-DAHL-goe moh-RAY-lohs)
First leader of the Haitian Revolution, a former slave (1743–1803) who wrote the first constitution of Haiti and served as the first governor of the newly independent state. (pron. too-SAN loo-ver-TOUR)
Movement that claimed that women have value in society not because of an abstract notion of equality but because women have a distinctive and vital role as mothers; its exponents argued that women have the right to intervene in civil and political life because of their duty to watch over the future of their children.
A clearly defined territory whose people have a sense of common identity and destiny, thanks to ties of blood, culture, language, or common experience.
The focusing of citizens’ loyalty on the notion that they are part of a “nation” with a unique culture, territory, and destiny; first became a prominent element of political culture in the nineteenth century.
The “little” (or poor) white population of Saint Domingue, which played a significant role in the Haitian Revolution. (pron. pay-TEE blawnk)
The first organized women’s rights conference, which took place at Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848.
Term used to describe the revolutionary violence in France in 1793–1794, when radicals under the leadership of Maximilien Robespierre executed tens of thousands of people deemed enemies of the revolution.
In prerevolutionary France, the term used for the 98 percent of the population that was neither clerical nor noble, and for their representatives at the Estates General; in 1789, the Third Estate declared itself a National Assembly and launched the French Revolution.
Term that Karl Marx used to describe the owners of industrial capital; originally meant “townspeople.” (pron. boor-zwah-ZEE)
British working-class political party established in the 1890s and dedicated to reforms and a peaceful transition to socialism, in time providing a viable alternative to the revolutionary emphasis of Marxism.
Pen name of Russian Bolshevik Vladimir Ulyanov (1870–1924), who was the main leader of the Russian Revolution of 1917. (pron. vlad-EE-mir ool-YAHN-off )
Social stratum that developed in Britain in the nineteenth century and that consisted of people employed in the service sector as clerks, salespeople, secretaries, police officers, and the like; by 1900, this group comprised about 20 percent of Britain’s population.
The most influential proponent of socialism, Marx (1818–1883) was a German expatriate in England who advocated working-class revolution as the key to creating an ideal communist future.
Long and bloody war (1911–1920) in which Mexican reformers from the middle class joined with workers and peasants to overthrow the dictator Porfirio Díaz and create a new, much more democratic political order.
The first automobile affordable enough for a mass market; produced by American industrialist Henry Ford.
Tsar of Russia (r. 1689–1725) who attempted a massive reform of Russian society in an effort to catch up with the states of Western Europe.
Late-nineteenth-century American political movement that denounced corporate interests of all kinds.
American political movement in the period around 1900 that advocated reform measures to correct the ills of industrialization.
Term that Karl Marx used to describe the industrial working class; originally used in ancient Rome to describe the poorest part of the urban population. (pron. proh-li-TARE-ee-at)
Spontaneous rebellion that erupted in Russia after the country’s defeat at the hands of Japan in 1905; the revolution was suppressed, but it forced the government to make substantial reforms.
Fairly minor political movement in the United States, at its height in 1912 gaining 6 percent of the vote for its presidential candidate.
Ottoman sultan (r. 1876–1909) who accepted a reform constitution but then quickly suppressed it, ruling as a reactionary autocrat for the rest of his long reign. (pron. AHB-dahlhahm- EED)
Rising of Chinese militia organizations in 1900 in which large numbers of Europeans and Chinese Christians were killed.
Term commonly used to describe areas that were dominated by Western powers in the nineteenth century but that retained their own governments and a measure of independence, e.g., Latin America and China.
U.S. navy commodore who in 1853 presented the ultimatum that led Japan to open itself to more normal relations with the outside world.
Two wars fought between Western powers and China (1839–1842 and 1856–1858) after China tried to restrict the importation of foreign goods, especially opium; China lost both wars and was forced to make major concessions.
Ending in a Japanese victory, this war established Japan as a formidable military competitor in East Asia and precipitated the Russian Revolution of 1905.
Armed retainers of the Japanese feudal lords, famed for their martial skills and loyalty; in the Tokugawa shogunate, the samurai gradually became an administrative elite, but they did not lose their special privileges until the Meiji restoration. (pron. SAH-moo-rie)
China’s program of internal reform in the 1860s and 1870s, based on vigorous application of Confucian principles and limited borrowing from the West.
Ottoman sultan (r. 1789–1807) who attempted significant reforms of his empire, including the implementation of new military and administrative structures. (pron. seh-LEEM)
Western Europe’s unkind nickname for the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a name based on the sultans’ inability to prevent Western takeover of many regions and to deal with internal problems; it fails to recognize serious reform efforts in the Ottoman state during this period.
Massive Chinese rebellion that devastated much of the country between 1850 and 1864; it was based on the millenarian teachings of Hong Xiuquan. (pron. tie-PING)
Important reform measures undertaken in the Ottoman Empire beginning in 1839; the term “Tanzimat” means “reorganization.” (pron. TAHNZ-ee-MAT)
Rulers of Japan from 1600 to 1868. (pron. toe-koo-GAH-wah SHOW-gun-at)
Series of nineteenth-century treaties in which China made major concessions to Western powers.
Movement of Turkish military and civilian elites that developed ca. 1900, eventually bringing down the Ottoman Empire.
Afrikaans term literally meaning “aparthood”; the system that developed in South Africa of strictly limiting the social and political integration of whites and blacks. (pron. uh-PART-hite)
Prominent West African scholar and political leader (1832–1912) who argued that each civilization, including that of Africa, has its own unique contribution to make to the world.
Agricultural production, often on a large scale, of crops for sale in the market, rather than for consumption by the farmers themselves.
A pattern of European racism in their Asian and African colonies that created a great racial divide between Europeans and the natives, and limited native access to education and the civil service, based especially on pseudo-scientific notions of naturally superior and inferior races.
System of forced labor used in the Netherlands East Indies in the nineteenth century; peasants were required to cultivate at least 20 percent of their land in cash crops, such as sugar or coffee, for sale at low and fixed prices to government contractors, who then earned enormous profits from further sale of the crops.
Term commonly used to describe areas such as Latin America and China that were dominated by Western powers in the nineteenth century but that retained their own governments and a measure of independence.
In many colonial states, a process of forging new ways of belonging and self-identification that defined and to some extent mythologized the region’s past, especially to create broader terms of belonging than had existed before.
Name used for the process of the European countries’ partition of the continent of Africa between themselves in the period 1875–1900.
Leading religious figure of nineteenth-century India (1863–1902); advocate of a revived Hinduism and its mission to reach out to the spiritually impoverished West. (pron. vee-vikah-NAHN-dah)
The main beneficiaries in Asian and African lands colonized by Western powers; schooled in the imperial power’s language and practices, they moved into their country’s professional classes but ultimately led anticolonial movements as they grew discouraged by their inability to win equal status to the colonizers.
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