History 105 Notes 1/28/08 Jamestown 1/28/2008 First Successful English Colony 1607 English had problems in Jamestown with the environment, and the first couple of decades were very difficult in settling Jamestown? Expectations for Colony Stockholders in the Virginia Company King of England Indians Pamunkey Tribe Wanted to ally themselves with English so they can share tools and become allies with one another? Had seen settlers before, so they weren?t completely shocked. Knew Europeans had really good products, so they keep English alive. Powhatan (Chief)- Powhatan dies in 1618 and his brother takes leadership over his people? At first everything between English and Indians was very good. Indians helped English stay alive by teaching them how to plant corn and hunt animals. John Smith ? Great leader and good survival skills. Had good reasoning skills and compromised with the Indians. Smith got the colony much more organized than before. John Smith wasn?t very liked by the English cause he had very strict rules on ways of living for English in Jamestown. Great starving time ( Winter 1609-1610) In May of 1609 Thomas Gates arrives from England to be temporary governor of Jamestown with 500 people? Some ships shipwreck around the Caribbean. 400 people make it to Virginia? Jamestown did not have enough food to feed the current population. Thomas Gates was not a good a leader as John Smith was, so the Great Starving Time of (Winter of 1609-1610 Around 500 Settlers at first, at end of 1610, only 60 survived. Planned to go back to England on June of 1610? Before they leave, another ship came to Jamestown Thomas West came to replace Thomas Gates as governor. West brought supplies and people in order to keep English settlement in Jamestown alive. West kept a very strict regime in order to maintain order. Gradually the colony begins to recuperate. By 1614 a few commodities were sent back to England. Timber and tobacco was exported to England to make finished goods. As English were growing tobacco in Virginia, English kept kicking Indians off their land so they can grow more tobacco and ship to England? As English and Indians were at war, the Powhatan begin to be depleted due to war and disease? so they decide to compromise Pocahantas Marries John Rolfe and becomes Christian Pocahantas is seen as a princess in London because English are fascinated with Indians? Very well received, but while in England she contracted a disease by small pox or something else? Pocahantas was buried in England at the age of 20 John Smith mentioned Pocahantas in 2nd edition of one of his books So many stories about Pocahantas that it is hard to know what?s true and what?s not. John Rolfe and Tobacco Began experimenting with Tobacco in Jamestown? Experimented with crossing 2 types of tobacco 1. Harsh Virginia tobacco and 2. Soft Spanish tobacco and created a very high quality tobacco? Began testing tobacco in Europe and in 1614 tobacco became a huge cash crop? Tobacco needed a lot of labor, so slavery was started in Jamestown? By 1618 The Virginia company said that if anyone was willing to go to Jamestown you will get 50 acres plus 50 acres more for each family member you take with you. More problems developed with Indians due to land issues Strict discipline in colonies calmed down a bit in 1618. 1619 (Year of changes) Very active year where lots of changes were implemented. An assembly is organized to represent the people of Jamestown. July of 1619 First meeting of general assembly in Virginia. Representative government. Different types of people begin arriving, such as women Becoming more permanent place In 1619 90 young single women arrived in Virginia. These women volunteered because they were ambitious and wanted to marry men with land and who had money? Once these women married men with land, they can develop social status and have economic security. Women had plenty of men to choose from since most people in Jamestown were male. Of all the 90 women that originally came only 2 decided to leave Jamestown. In 1619, 100 London slum children land in Jamestown. These children were poor and began stealing and committing crimes in London, so they were sent to Jamestown to work and help out? These children in apprentices learned whatever their leaders taught them and yeah... England saw this as a way to clear England of overpopulation? Eventually England asks criminals if they would rather go to jail or to Jamestown In 1619 20 Africans dropped by a Dutch ship were the first black people to arrive in the colonies? At this point Africans weren?t slaves, as the Indians had started to be Mayflower landed in Plymouth colony in 1620? 1622 Massacre A Local Indian tribe attacks the English and 350 English were killed. A few months later the English retaliate by purposing a peace treaty with the English, so while celebrating, the English poison the Indian?s drinks and 200 Indians die? Very significant when it comes to Indian and English relationships? By this time a few other colonies are already formed or developing and some hear about the massacre, so they panic because the same might happen to them? In Plymouth English and Indians had absolutely no contact at first? People in Plymouth become very cautious and it hurts their relationship with the Indians? 1624 signifies a major change in Jamestown Virginia company decides that their plan to fund the colony wasn?t going to work out Even thought they are doing good it wasn?t working quite as well as they had planned? Other merchants believe that the Virginia company shouldn?t monopolize Jamestown And king James decides that Virginia company shouldn?t monopolize Jamestown In 1624 Jamestown becomes a royal colony under power of King James III Virginia 1/30/2008 1624 Virginia ceases to take any part with the Virginia Company. Charter is revoked because they really aren?t making money, plus England wasn?t making any money either? 1625 King of England James 1st dies and his son Charles 1st takes the throne? Has long term effect on colonies. King James 1st was very interested in the colonies, but King Charles 1st really doesn?t care about the colonies, so England adopts an unofficial policy to ignore the colonies. Salutary Neglect starts with King Charles 1st England allows the colonies to develop and function on their own with minimal interference from England. England still keeps an eye on the colonies financially, but politics wise, the colonies were very independent. Over next 150 years the colonies develop on their own. They find their own ways of survival and living on their own? After these 150 years England reverses their role and wants to have rule over the colonies. The colonists were not very pleased with this because England basically abandoned them while they were on their own. Shift of Status in Virginia Slavery Labor was needed, so a way for the colonist to try and resolve this was by using slave labor. Tobacco becomes very competitive between independent farmers, and people need to grow more tobacco to make more money. Slavery tends to emerge where there are 2 characteristics, 1st a shortage of available labor, and the 2nd is having lots of available land. Ever since Virginia started out, there has always been a shortage of labor, and lots of land available? 1st solution for labor shortage was Indentured servants. Poor people from England primarily who wanted to come to the Americas and settle, but could not pay their taxes on the trip over? Indentured servants signed a contract to work a certain number of years to pay for their trip over to the colonies. Once their debt is paid off, they are free to go, and will get their promised land. Farmers from England that want to desperately get to the Americas so they can have land and opportunity to prosper and pass land on to their children. Difference between slaves and indentured servants was that people would purchase the servant?s labor, and not themselves. Slaves were purchased for semi-permanent labor. People would round up orphans and send them to the colonies to work as indentured servants. If a person was healthy and young, a person could negotiate their contract to maybe 3 years. These men could work harder than old weaker people could? If you were too young or too old, you would have to work for about 5-7 years because you could not work as hard as a mature older male could? Most indentured servants were contracted as farmers, but there were also more specialized positions, such as being bilingual or having other skills. Sometimes Indentured servants died before their contract was complete, so the contractor will have to find some more else where? Indentured servants had an advantage over slaves, because they knew that after a certain period, they were free to live their lives? while slaves were stuck with their masters till they escaped or died. Maryland had one of the best freedom dues from all the other colonies. They guaranteed 50 acres of land after their contract was over, and they were provided with clothing and tools to get started on their own. If Indentured servants would misbehave or run away, the contractor would try to get the time of contract extended with the court. Number of Indentured servants? starts to drop, plus contracts eventually run out, so farmers were looking for cheap, permanent labor, such as slavery. Slavery was not an instant racial division at first. When black people first went to the American colonies, they were not slaves until slavery was really needed? Anthony Johnson was a black man who came to Virginia as an Indentured Servant. He worked out his contract and received his freedom along with land. He was a very successful farmer, and eventually owned 250 Acres of land. He contracted several white Indentured servants, along with one black servant. Anthony came to Virginia in 1621. Slavery was not associated with skin color right away. 1629 4 Virginia Legislator?s were previously Indentured Servants. 1620?s ? 1650?s class division was not based on color, but more on who owned land and who didn?t. Also who had more money than whom? Edmund Morgan says in 1660?s things were beginning to change because there were fewer and fewer white servants coming over to Virginia. By 1660?s labor starts being associated with slavery and black people. In 1660?s Government start passing slave regulation laws, and installing slave codes? Slave codes defined status of slave, status of master and government?s authority over slave?s master and the slave By 1675 there are 5,000 slaves in Virginia alone and slavery exist in all other colonies. By 1700 10% of the populations in Virginia were slaves. In the 1700?s people did not see Slavery as a moral issue, but more of a solution to the Economy. Slavery begins to be a moral issue between 1776 and 1830? Slavery did ease the labor shortage. 2nd appeal of slavery was that slaves were the slave owner?s property for life 3rd appeal Children of slaves would become slaves to their parent?s master. 4th appeal runaway slaves were easy to identify because there wasn?t a large free black population. Once they were found, they would be returned to their master. Major disadvantage of slavery was that slaves were twice as expensive as an indentured servant. A lot of slaves died shortly after landing in North America. Advantage that Indentured servants had over slaves was that their trip over to the new worlds was a more pleasant trip. Slavery was in all the colonies, north and south, but flourished more in the south due to agriculture. Protestant Reformation 02/01/2008 Happens in 1517 and is a huge event that shatters catholic religion in Europe. Many Europeans begin to be prosecuted for not changing their religion? German Monk Martin Luther prints a document ?95 Thesis? which he believes to be abuses by the Catholic church . He believes that people gain salvation not through good work or donations, but by direct belief in God and Jesus. Luther breaks from Roman Catholic church and the protestant faith is formed A sect was named after him (Lutheranism) Protestant faith is not united, so different sects exist? Most European regions were tied together by religion (Roman Catholic Church) England breaks away from Catholicism more for political reason than spiritual reasons. King Henry VIII was married to a woman named Catherine of Aragon for 8 years and have one daughter. Her name was Mary and she grew up? King Henry wanted a male heir, and Catherine can?t have any sons, so King Henry VIII went to the pope to try to get his marriage annulled. The pope declines and Henry creates a new Protestant church. King Henry VIII creates the Anglican Church of England. Becomes national state church. The Anglican church gives him the Annulment and marries Anne Boleyn, but she has 1 daughter named Elizabeth, and then King Henry VIII dies. .. Mary then becomes queen for about 5 years, and takes England back to Catholicism? Mary would prosecute anyone who was protestant and was very violent? People fled England and go to Switzerland and are known as the Marian Exiles. These people follow John Calvin John Calvin had his version of Protestant called Calvinism? ?Puritans? Marian Exiles stay in Switzerland and learn Calvinism while Mary is still queen Calvin says that people are born with sins, and believes in predestination. Calvin says that god knows who the saved are and who the damned are? Those who are not predestined to be saved cannot change their faith Calvin doesn?t know who will be saved, so they must seek Calvin stresses qualities in people, such as hard work and loyal behavior? He thinks that this could be a sign as them being predestined to salvation 1558 Mary dies. Then her sister Elizabeth takes the throne. She reigns from 1558 to 1603. Elizabeth is Protestant, so England flips back to protestant. Protestants soon start coming back to England, and the Marian Exiles come back and start preaching? Followers are known as Puritans. Puritans are happy that England is back to being Protestant, but they believe that the Anglican church is very much like Catholicism? Puritans want to try to purify the Anglican church and they start being annoying so they are known as a radical group? Puritans separate themselves from other protestants, so they want to break away from the Anglican church Within Puritans, the Separatist form and are an extreme radical group? Separatist puritans have a strong voice in the colonies, and are formed in Plymouth and later in Massachusetts bay? A lot of people came to the colonies because they were being prosecuted by England for their religion and beliefs The Separatist puritans came over not for this reason, but to start their own religion Plymouth At first Plymouth was supposed to be an economic colony, but Separatist had influence in this region. Plymouth was formed in 1620 Thomas Weston Separatist wanted to live in Netherlands, for their religious freedom, but they wanted their sons and daughters to be English so they relocate to Plymouth colony to still be English? William Bradford goes to Thomas Weston who is forming the colony and Weston agrees because they need people if the colony is going to succeed? So the economic group and religious group combine and build Plymouth? Mayflower has 101 people on the ship. 35 of the 109 were Separatist Puritans? Those that are not Puritans are called strangers by the Separatist? Before they get off Mayflower, the Mayflower Compact was formed? Massachusetts Bay Protestant Reformation 02/08/2008 Happens in 1517 and is a huge event that shatters catholic religion in Europe. Many Europeans begin to be prosecuted for not changing their religion? German Monk Martin Luther prints a document ?95 Thesis? which he believes to be abuses by the Catholic church . He believes that people gain salvation not through good work or donations, but by direct belief in God and Jesus. Luther breaks from Roman Catholic church and the protestant faith is formed A sect was named after him (Lutheranism) Protestant faith is not united, so different sects exist? Most European regions were tied together by religion (Roman Catholic Church) England breaks away from Catholicism more for political reason than spiritual reasons. King Henry VIII was married to a woman named Catherine of Aragon for 8 years and have one daughter. Her name was Mary and she grew up? King Henry wanted a male heir, and Catherine can?t have any sons, so King Henry VIII went to the pope to try to get his marriage annulled. The pope declines and Henry creates a new Protestant church. King Henry VIII creates the Anglican Church of England. Becomes national state church. The Anglican church gives him the Annulment and marries Anne Boleyn, but she has 1 daughter named Elizabeth, and then King Henry VIII dies. .. Mary then becomes queen for about 5 years, and takes England back to Catholicism? Mary would prosecute anyone who was protestant and was very violent? People fled England and go to Switzerland and are known as the Marian Exiles. These people follow John Calvin John Calvin had his version of Protestant called Calvinism? ?Puritans? Marian Exiles stay in Switzerland and learn Calvinism while Mary is still queen Calvin says that people are born with sins, and believes in predestination. Calvin says that god knows who the saved are and who the damned are? Those who are not predestined to be saved cannot change their faith Calvin doesn?t know who will be saved, so they must seek Calvin stresses qualities in people, such as hard work and loyal behavior? He thinks that this could be a sign as them being predestined to salvation 1558 Mary dies. Then her sister Elizabeth takes the throne. She reigns from 1558 to 1603. Elizabeth is Protestant, so England flips back to protestant. Protestants soon start coming back to England, and the Marian Exiles come back and start preaching? Followers are known as Puritans. Puritans are happy that England is back to being Protestant, but they believe that the Anglican church is very much like Catholicism? Puritans want to try to purify the Anglican church and they start being annoying so they are known as a radical group? Puritans separate themselves from other protestants, so they want to break away from the Anglican church Within Puritans, the Separatist form and are an extreme radical group? Separatist puritans have a strong voice in the colonies, and are formed in Plymouth and later in Massachusetts bay? A lot of people came to the colonies because they were being prosecuted by England for their religion and beliefs The Separatist puritans came over not for this reason, but to start their own religion Plymouth At first Plymouth was supposed to be an economic colony, but Separatist had influence in this region. Plymouth was formed in 1620 Thomas Weston Separatist wanted to live in Netherlands, for their religious freedom, but they wanted their sons and daughters to be English so they relocate to Plymouth colony to still be English? William Bradford goes to Thomas Weston who is forming the colony and Weston agrees because they need people if the colony is going to succeed? So the economic group and religious group combine and build Plymouth? Mayflower has 101 people on the ship. 35 of the 109 were Separatist Puritans? Those that are not Puritans are called strangers by the Separatist? Before they get off Mayflower, the Mayflower Compact was formed? Massachusetts Bay Witchcraft in Colonial New England 02/13/2008 Who Was Accused? Belief in witchcraft was stronger in New England because of the Puritan faith in New England? Puritans believed strongly in Satan, and believed that witches were there to serve Satan? Belief in Witchcraft comes from English heritage 1542 ? Witchcraft made a capital crime, so witches could be murdered for being witches? 90% of English accused witches were women Economic status ? Ann Hibbens Accused of being a witch on May 14, 1656 She was an example of an upper class women who was accused of being a witch She was referred to as Mrs. Hibbens because she was high class, but if she would be a lower class she would have been known as Goodwife Hibbens In old England typically poor women were the ones accused of being witches? In New England, most women were accused of being witches by the Puritans? Assumptions about ?Witches? How they obtained their supernatural powers How to detect and rid community of witches Belief was so widespread that disbelief was suspect People in the colony believed they knew a lot about witches, such as figuring out where they got their powers from, and how to detect a witch from a non witch? Concerns about Witches 1st concern ? witches could do harm to the Puritan Church 2nd Concern ? they could hurt their neighbors and their property Colonists believed that witches were enemies of god A witch in new England was considered a human being with supernatural powers? Maleficium ? To cause harm to others by supernatural means Cause animals to die, or cause a woman to lose her baby? A witch could do harm with a look, or a touch, or even from far away? Powers derived from a covenant with the devil Puritans believed that the devil would approach human beings and make an agreement sort of like the person will do the work of the devil, they will gain supernatural powers, and they would have to sell their souls to the devil? These people would then try to get other people to work for the devil? Colonists believed that sometimes people were possessed by the devil on rare occasions? When the covenant was finalized, the colonists believed that they would have a mark known as the devil?s Mark Devil?s Mark Devil?s Mark could be anything, such as a mole, a skin abnormality, or even a birthmark? Colonists believed that the Devil?s mark would be close to their sexual organs, so this group of people would go to a room and examine a witches sexual organs to look for the mark? It was very hard to prove a person was a witch, so not many were convicted? Witches did have the opportunity to go to court ?Proving? Witchcraft Confession Colonists wanted people to confess they were witches Physical and psychological pressure These people were tortured until they agreed they were witches They would also bring family members, so it can be harder on the person being accused? Testimony of neighbors Most witchcraft accusations were neighbor accusing another neighbor ? Ex. If a family starts having bad luck, such as ur a farmer and ur crops always die, and nothing is working out, people would start to think that their neighbors were witches and put a curse on them? Salem, Massachusetts 1691-1692 many people were continually being accused of being witches on a daily or weekly basis? Characteristics of Accused Witches Gender At least 342 were accused of being witches from 1620 ? 1725 Of The 342, 267 or (78%) were women 75 Men were accused of witchcraft and half of the men were suspect by association, which means they were suspected of being witches because they were related to another witch? only about 30 men were accused independently? Accused men and women were treated different when it came to torture and confession? Christopher Brown also confessed to be a witch, but the court didn?t believe him, so they fined him for lying about being a witch If a female agreed to be a witch she was prosecuted? So men and women were treated differently Age Women of all ages were accused of Witchcraft 4 year old girl was accused being a witch 28 year old 47? also 75 year old Study shows that women over 40 were more likely to be accused of witchcraft than younger women? Women over 40 were taken to court, and most were actually prosecuted? Women over 40 were accused because they were entering a stage of not being able to have children and also go through Menopause? Women over 40 are not performing their major function in society because they can?t have any more babies? Marital Status Women who were single, widowed, or divorced were more likely to be accused of being witches than married women? Married women could be protected from being accused by their husbands due to social or economic voice? Property Ownership Women who owned property and controlled their own property were more likely to be accused of being witches Katherine Harrison ? Her husband John died, and she was left one of the wealthiest women in the colony? Katherine chose to not remarry, and decided to manage her own finances? Was not placed on trial, because they didn?t have enough evidence? divided in a bitter religious strife long time European Christian (Catholic) church v. new Church of England Church was the richest single institution (richer than even the monarchy) confiscate property people can disagree about what constitutes a legitimate faith Henry the King and able to say Roman Catholic church has no right to operate in , but that did not mean people did many remained Catholic and perpetuated their faith secretly division between continuing Catholics and Henry, his new church, followers ? plots to overthrow her above all, in her fear and hatred of Catholicism, she feared and hated as rivals and as the source and financiers of plots to dispossess her as one of the goals of her reign, near or at the top was defeating, discouraging, discomfiting the Spanish giant empire Catholics who fought her greatest threat to Protestantism fortress that never waived allegiance to Catholicism with queen?s will behind them, English set out to make life as difficult for Spanish as they could Francis Drake ? pirate, admiral, circumnavigator of the world ?I would gladly singe the beard of the Spanish King? encouraged them to seek out Spanish ships, capture the treasure and bring it back to ?crime on a scale so large becomes politics? No one in thought English could fight Spanish on dry land in the story told, Drake takes the English fleet to sea and defeats the Armada defeat of Armada makes greater difference in than in but did not change the situation on land English got what the Spanish did not want pragmatic reasons to go to Hakluyt find gold like the Spanish find Northwest passage (shortcut from Europe to ) outlet for excess population of (population explosion) great crowds of poor roaming the roads eating whatever they could lay their hands on advantage could be had by bringing English civilization into the wilderness Hakluyt cited precendents for English colonization : ?conquered ?savages? and exploited land? English behaved in the way they had in perceived Indians as savages ?once they figure out the benefits we bring them, they will welcome us? capitalism came to from from the beginning, those trying to set up an English colony understood that it had to be a successful business proposition not motivated by purely religious proposition King of Spain or France may have been prepared to support colonies by pouring money into them, but English Kings & Queens had no such intentions people made it on their own with help of private citizens who would invest in them for personal reasons, of their own free will, and due to ?the market? motivation was not ?religious tolerance?! came to worship free but not to establish a place where that could be done came to set up colonies that worked as businesses English government ready to support the colonies by (1) giving land away (e.g. to individuals, people who were loyal, people to be got rid of; to companies such as the company); (2) keeping the an English way, to make the colonies work (mostly succeeded) first colony in ; next one in ? stark contrast in the way they ran NW passage not there little gold, esp. near east coast establish functional colony ? use land that they have success of colonies depends on finding a way to make use of the one thing that every colony has ? LAND mostly soldiers short on skills many died, many went back some came prepared when they came, they came to a large extent as communities, church congregations they had skills, established some sort of civilization 1763 AND ALL THAT John Addams ? President of US Tories ? loyal to not in favor of revolution women and children not asked ... revolution carried out by a minority people not a great uprising more a deliberate process colonies until 1763 much more inclined to look at than to each other no particular history of cooperation with one another 13 colonies ? separate entities that perceived themselves as such obstacle of separate thinking to be overcome when unifying a country not just legally part of the , but also culturally practice English law English rights by mid-18th century, quite functional and intricately formed system business law culture politics for British, colonies just one part of a growing empire; did not particularly affect anything by mid-18th century, single most pressing matter for colonies was danger of running out of land importance of land everything rested on it population increase and the success of the colonies greatest dilemma: success itself made it difficult to live as they had planned land made ever more valuable, ever more scarce tobacco ? destroys fertility of soil over time dialectic process in which the creation and success of something contains the seeds of its own destruction colonists had sense of constantly being hemmed in geographical barrier barrier physically and also because hard to descend on wagons river ? useful, plentiful, transport but also do not run through mountain combination of enemies on the other side French, Indians, Spanish those who went across met a bad end called upon mother country constantly for help by mid-18th century, absence of land and practice of dividing land among children ? not much land left William the Conqueror ? confiscated land from owners and passed it along to followers Americans had come to expect to acquire land foundation of American dream ? one's children can do better than oneself rooted in vast expanse of land colonists themselves did not have capacity to take on enemies on other side no army, only militia of each colony willing and had some guns, propensity for violence, but did not have organization and strength in numbers to conquer did try (1764) ? marched to western , but did not succeed result of attempt: Ben Franklin ? Albany Plan of the first systematic, organized attempt to turn uncooperative colonies into some sort of collective action >> the first thought of working together 1756 ? latest in endless series of European wars fought over territory and invasion French and Indian war first war that was ignited in the New World rather than in the (although wars had spread to the colonies before) hunger for land on part of English colonists >> spread beyond to trans-Appalachian west break through shortage of land 1758 ? British defeat French at monumental consequences French who concerned British the most ? French who occupied everything north French control ? defeat appears to colonists as land to be given to themselves surely a lot of land out there BUT, war drags on for five years and the defeat at , but Indians continued to fight after the French themselves had suffered French lose land in , other places very upset at humiliation >> notion of revenge against British, much to the benefit of colonies ascent of George III primarily German assert authority of king difficult to do so in the themselves, but could do so in the empire expands British empire with islands in the , ... make empire serve more effectively the ends of the mother country period of salutary neglect ends when busy with itself ? colonists left to themselves colonists have not dealt with king's authority for a while salutary neglect ends with a salvo of laws, regulations ... colonists outraged colonists had fought war alongside British in the cause of expanding the empire when told they could not occupy land beyond the mountains, feel they have lost the things they have fought for thousands of colonists already in newly won land seeds of what grows to be resentment government that had not cared what they did, had suddenly decided to enforce its laws self-government reduced; taxation without representation; government in which they had no voice taxation = confiscation British had a different view colonists a source of grief more than income more money to be got out of in 1 year than from the N. American colonies in a decade people living pretty well under protection of British arms, laws and rights the more they get, the more they want behaving like children wanted everything, and for free >> did not want to pay (no taxation without representation) king determined to make people pay for some of the benefits they have received ___ HIST 105 CLASS 11 ___ DECLARATION OF D.of.I. a crucial document in evolution of democracy, only because revolution succeeded constituted a statement of principles on which the colonists separated from the British evidence of what made to colonists want to separate overt challenge to one of the most powerful nations and the undoubted number 1 naval power ? differences among colonists already there though not visible in 1776 ? against slavery ? heart of slavery; ? point of arrival of slaves as a document, as an exercise in logic and principles, it is a document of the Enlightenment product of Enlightened thinking speaks to people whose purpose is to address a situation they think must be made better people thought of themselves as English by language and culture, law, and concept of rights sever ties with British because of thought that, in order to maintain their rights, need to become American ? had to get out of English rule in order to preserve the rights given them by the English (argument later used during the Secession when the southern states seceded from the ) did not want to totally break away ? only from the things that corrupted the concept of rights did not care about what happened in , Caribbean, talked about invading but never very loud or effectively >> thought of as home interest in preserving a democracy to which they could be entitled, not interested in spreading democracy anywhere else Enlightenment document ? argument from the age of reason asserts that things have gotten worse, they have lost things they should be entitled to and this can be FIXED >> audacious thing to believe in 17th century against Christian notion of original sin, which denies the perfectibility of mankind concept of improvement through reason Thomas Jefferson ? star of Declaration of Independence largely his work, although revised accusations, indictments on the king not there in original document blamed the Parliament had friends in parliament who argued for them ? why risk annoying them? measured words that each had weight; expressed his feelings and those of other Americans each word reflects the Enlightenment human events have run a course? ? going somewhere; purpose and direction becomes necessary for one people to ... powers of the earth (right to expect that borders would not be crossed, political powers reflected) laws of nature that govern universe (naturally in the order of life) decent respect for the opinions of mankind document not an invocation to a deity or to things we cannot control, but an appeal to human reason HIST 105 Class 14 DECLARATION OF many people thought calmer minds would prevail in , thought British would not fight their king colonists poorly equipped to fight a war, esp. against a power as big as no navy no army no government creating navy, army, and simultaneously government, with no experience Declaration forces and produces Continental Congress colonists and British asked themselves questions: Colonists: what will it mean to win? difficult to answer win ? to survive long enough for the British to give up How will you achieve that? answer is sometimes that you must be prepared battles on continent ? large stretch of territory for British to try and fight in strategy of colonists ? fight, run away, fight another day winter at British ? what will it mean to win? break independence and the manifestations of it force colonists back into how to do that ? difficult question because of winning, Declaration takes on significance ? otherwise, would have been a document with little influence colonists ? thought they had many friends in who would persuade to stop, for several reasons: English legacy ? colonists a representation of this, with love for rights; ?wrong? to wage war against brethren colonists will not survive independently ? ?let them go away, ere long they will return on their knees to beg for readmission? sense that to fight a war across the Atlantic would be risky ? took months for information to make a round trip; risky esp. if one breaks out in and army is elsewhere islands in that are spinning money ? are the N. American colonies really paying dividends like the sugar islands? involvement of French commercial interests in ? have own view complication ? French decide to help colonies troops, fleet ? if the French enter on the side of American colonies, then every part of the (not just the colonies) now at risk to French if they declare war, not going to say ?watch out only in ? risk of invasion of any part of the threat of things that they may do in the end, worth it to give up colonies in N. America, in order to save the interests of British business profit most by colonial independence British merchants colonies not a source of great profit for British government, but provided considerable income and wealth for private sector network created by mercantilism, merchants ? strong and transcend war lot of correspondence between merchants in England and America ?did business as part of British empire, can do business as part of ? ? politics another thing altogether people did not doubt that after the war, it would be back to business as usual capitalism ? follows the money, not the flag letters of merchants ? ?when this war ends, it doesn?t matter? daring experiment ? government that has not existed before intersection of many considerations on both sides of end of war comes as great surprise ? could not believe they had won during war, many people loyal to king now you have broken free of political bonds, etc. ? now what? how to make this work? no one believed they would not need a government create government that would ensure they could keep independence, and also make it work HIST 105-510 CLASS 16 CONSTITUTION OF (RATIFIED 1789) Americans believed, as English before them, that key to well-being was right form of government difficulty was to find the proper balance in a government that could do what it should without tyrannizing continuum of tyranny at one end and liberty at the other ? neither extreme would do to this day, our society and all others seek a balance between tyranny and order AoC failed to deliver proper balance task in creating government ? create framework that encompassed both the states and a larger one in this , states after all came first each colony had a government of its own before any government existed over them all the states existed before their union states always had concern to retain sufficient degree of power over their own affairs and those of their citizens most Americans thought of themselves as the citizens of one state first, and citizens of the second central government had few powers and almost no ability to compel states to do anything significant number of people concluded that AoC did not have sufficient power ? central government needed reforming in direction of centralized power AoC a failure, on the surface, because number of people grew dissatisfied and tried to replace it looking at it differently, in 1783 ppl did not have well-formed idea of governmental balance; more afraid of tyranny than of weakness of central government reflected in AoC maybe, had to have something like that as a transition as people figured out where they wanted to go not much of a blueprint to work from may in fact have served well created an independent country and served as a transition period into the writing of the Constitution passed NW Ordinance! ? decides way/process by which vast territories of will be organized first into territories and then into states first thought is to reform AoC but once convention came together, concluded that no simple revision would serve and what is needed is a new document ? the Constitution of 1789 written largely by James Madison wrote drafts, brought them to meetings, discussed issues involved 1. determine balance of power between states and union necessary to define them gives enumerated powers ? declare war, make currency, regulate economy all powers not given to government belong to states end result: document is quite short 2. separate powers within federal government ? protect liberty within framework of central government, by making it difficult for power to move unilaterally separation of powers executive, senate, judiciary (supreme court, inferior courts) some ppl feel government moves too slowly to serve their needs one of the expectations everyone has is that it will serve their needs federal government ? specific power that prevail in all the states; hence all the people look to central government for specific things if in a group that wants something, have to take up the issue with federal government; ppl get inpatient because it takes time for it to happen federal govt a clunky apparatus ? operates slowly, ? but only because it is designed to be a slow process separation of powers designed to slow up the creation of laws, rules ? because authors feared a government that moved quickly would move unwisely in terms of the people constitution had to resolve several practical issues central-state government; balancing power of heavily v. sparsely populated states ? one house proportional, the other equally represented area of land; land claims ? how to balance compromise ? hopefully gets something they want ? of course, also means everyone get something they don?t want over time, several compromises made to maintain the union will work if receiving things we want and accepting those we don?t covers all the issues; if there are remaining unresolved issues, compromise ultimately doomed when they wrote AoC, number of ppl believed was on the verge of failure tried to restructure government serious in compromise tried to debate trustworthiness of the people framers of constitution represented a spectrum of views about the trustworthiness some believed all wisdom rested in people and ppl were source of government power considerable number at convention who had a mistrust of the people Alexander Hamilton ? ?people are a great beast? ? those who believed this felt the ?beast? must be constrained somehow framework must embody notion that government existed because of the ppl, but must also take account of the fact that people could quickly become a mob that turned against whatever authority existed James Madison appears to have been closer to ?s view (despite later fallout) than to Jerry(?)s view limit direct impact of ppl upon federal government perhaps a cynic, perhaps simply realist ? in any case, believed human nature to be relatively straightforward in order to get them to cooperate in a working government, had to persuade them that their self-interest would be best fulfilled by conceding some of it to others certainly did not see people as overwhelmingly idealistic, selfless folk Karl Marx more an optimist of human nature! President elected not by people but by ?electoral college? nowadays mostly to pay off workers ? if you are loyal, call ppl to vote, lick envelopes ? maybe become a delegate what if ppl shd go mad and elect a dictator? ? put a layer of sanity and rationality between ppl on one hand and executive on the other hence directly elect number of reps of House; Senators by state legislatures ? layer of sanity federal judges appointed by President ppl had relatively little direct influence on conduct of government argument: this is enough because they have direct control over House of Representatives, who would make laws and who could be chucked out certainly true that power of ppl is mediated by various agencies between them tend to think of selves as a young country but politically the oldest entity on earth U.S. Constitution has endured longer than any other written constitution French ? written 5 times German ? from 1980s ? written in 1948 ? country only from 19th century good many wars including one designed to destroy the union survived assassination of number of presidents, complete restructuring of economy, 40 million immigrants in 40 years, now in the greatest amount of immigration, undergone amendment but considering that it is in effect for a long time, number of Amendments is quite small esp. since 1st 10 were almost immediately after ratification bill of rights preamble within the document, there lies a near-fatal flaw issues that confronted framers of constitution ? large-small state issue, western lands issue ? these things susceptible to compromise issue of slavery led to fatal flaw ? different from those other problems slavery not something that could be compromise ? either free or not cannot be slave in the day and free at night cannot be someone?s property, and free and independently, simultaneously but framers of constitution believed if slavery were abolished, and would not ratify constitution here is something that cannot be compromised; ppl on either side would never accept the arguments of the other
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