1 History of Astronomy & General Science 1. If the Moon is setting at noon, the phase of the Moon must be Third quarter. 2. When a spinning ice skater pulls in his arms, he spins faster because His angular momentum must be conserved, so reducing his radius must increase his speed of rotation. 3.Newton showed that Kepler's laws are Natural consequences of the law of universal gravitation. 4. Which of the following statements is not one of Newton's laws of motion? What goes up must come down. 5. Why were ancient peoples unable to detect stellar parallax? They did not have the ability to measure very small angles. 6. Galileo found "imperfections" on the Sun in the form of sunspots and "imperfections" on the Moon in the form of mountains and valleys. The correct answer is 'True'. 7. Which of the following best describes the origin of ocean tides on Earth? Tides are caused by the difference in the force of gravity exerted by the Moon across the sphere of Earth. 8. The planets never travel in a straight line as they orbit the Sun. According to Newton's second law of motion, this must mean that A force is acting on the planets. 9. Columbus was the first person to discover that Earth is round. The correct answer is 'False'. 10. In addition to the conditions required for any solar eclipse, what must also be true in order for you to observe a total solar eclipse? The Moon's umbra must touch the area where you are located. 11. Astronomy and astrology were often practiced together in ancient cultures, and astrology played an important role in the historical development of astronomy. The correct answer is 'True'. 12. Which of the following never goes in retrograde motion? The Sun 13. Which of the following statements about the celestial sphere is not true? The "celestial sphere" is just another name for our universe. 14. Which of the following statements about parallax is not true? The technique of stellar parallax was used by Hubble to determine that the Andromeda Galaxy (M 31) is about 2 million light-years away. 15. During the period each year when we see Mars undergoing apparent retrograde motion in our sky, what is really going on in space? Earth is catching up with and passing by Mars in their respective orbits. 16. Momentum is defined as Mass times velocity. 17. Why are astronauts weightless in the Space Station? Because the Space Station is constantly in free-fall around Earth 18. Radiative energy is Energy carried by light. 19. The energy attributed to an object by virtue of its motion is known as Kinetic energy. 20. Why did Ptolemy have the planets orbiting Earth on "circles upon circles" in his model of the universe? To explain the fact that planets sometimes appear to move westward, rather than eastward, relative to the stars in our sky 21. Kepler’s second law, which states that as a planet moves around its orbit it sweeps out equal areas in equal times, means that A planet travels faster when it is nearer to the Sun and slower when it is farther from the Sun. 22. The difference between speed and velocity is that Velocity also includes a direction. 23. The controversial book of this famous person, published in 1543 (the year of his death), suggested that Earth and other planets orbit the Sun. Copernicus 24. At which lunar phase(s) are tides most pronounced (e.g., the highest high tides)? Both new and full moons 25. What does temperature measure? The average kinetic energy of particles in a substance 26. When are eclipse seasons? When the nodes of the Moon's orbit are nearly aligned with the Sun 27. He discovered that the orbits of planets are ellipses. Kepler 28. Suppose the Sun were to suddenly shrink in size but its mass remained the same. According to the law of conservation of angular momentum, what would happen? The Sun would rotate faster than it does now. 29. For most of history, the lack of observable stellar parallax was interpreted to mean that Earth is stationary at the center of the universe. 30. He discovered that Jupiter has moons. Galileo 31. Which of the following represents a case in which you are not accelerating? Driving in a straight line at 60 miles per hour 32. A net force acting on an object will always cause a change in the objects Momentum. 33. Which statement must be true in order for a rocket to travel from Earth to another planet? It must attain escape velocity from Earth. 34. Which of the following statements about stellar parallax is true? The closer a star is to us, the more parallax it exhibits. 35. Copernicus was the first person to suggest a Sun-centered solar system. The correct answer is 'False'.