SPONTANEOUS GENERATION: -Theory thqt living things come from non-libing things -Hippocrates, Aristotle, William Harvey were believers. -The First person to try to disprove this theory was: Francisco Redi (redi's experiment), then Spallanzani's experiment and it was totally disproved with Louis Pasteur and his experiment.
-proposes that microorganisms are the cause of many diseases.
-Girolamo Fracastoro proposed in 1546 that epidemic diseases are caused by transferable seedlike entities that could transmit infection by direct or indirect contact or even without contact over long distances. (fATHER OF GERM THEORY)
-Francisco redi, John Needham, Spallazani, Pasteur, John Tyndall
-Robert Koch was the first scientist to devise a series of proofs used to verify the germ theory of disease.[
MEDICINE IN THE MIDDLE AGES -Rhazes
1)where is he form? 2)what was his most important acievement? 3)what were his 2 works?
1)persian doctor 2)discovere te difference between smallpox and measles 3) -"Al-Hawi": a book where he translated teh works of many greek doctors. - "On smallpox and measles"
MEDICINE IN THE MIDDLE AGES -Religion's role
1)what placed served as hospitals? 2)what medical schools gained high reputation? why? 3) who where 2 very imprtant islamic doctors:
1) monasteries 2)Islamic medical schools, because islamic medicine was based on teh Qu'ran and it gave clear instructions and social responsibilites. 3)Rhazes and Avicenna
ANCIENT MEDICINE -China
-The chinese believed that disease was caused by an imbalance in the body - The body was made of 2 kinds of energy: Ying and Yang -limited knowledge of anatomy
THEORY OF THE FOUR HUMORS
-Developed by Hipporcates -Said that he body contained four humors or fluids: blood, phlegm, black bile, yellow bile -if one of the above were in imbalance, it would cause disease. - although this theory is wrong, it encouraged doctors to look for causes of disease. -this theory was not changed until the 1400's
ANCIENT MEDICINE -egyptians
-greek and egyptians saw disease as having both natural and supernatural causes.
EGYPTIANS: Imhotep was a famous doctor from the egyptians. He recommended treatments such as herbs, surgery and magic charms. He didint understand the cause of disease but blamed the gods.
ANCIENT MEDICINE -greeks: asclepius vs. hippocrtes.
ASCLEPIUS: - Believed in the supernatural caus of disease -His daughte Hygea gave the name higene to mean clean. -His symbol was the snake serpent wrapped around a staff and it is now used as the symbol for healing.
HIPPOCRATES -regarded as "the father of medicine" -He believed that disease had natural causes and that it could be cured by rational means. -stressed the importance of observation, diagnosis and treatment. -created a strict ethical code that his medical students had to follow -Developed the theory of the four humors (see flashcard) -although his suggestions about excersice and good doet to be healther were true, his teory of the four humors was completely worng!
CLAUDIUS GALEN wa another greek docor and introduced the idea of using opposites tot reat illness
MEDICINE IN MIDDLE AGES -Avicenna
1)Where was he from? 2) what is he best known for? 3) what is hs most important work?
1) persian doctor 2) best known for his prolific medical wirtings. 3) The Canon (medial code). divided into 5 sections and covered diseases, fevers, and redemies. Standard textbokk of university training.
MEDICINE IN THE MIDDLE AGES -WHO WAS BLAMED FOR DISEASE?
1) THE PLANETS: doctors believed tat the position of the planets affected peoples lives and health
2) PUNISHMENT FROM GOD: Very popular at this time. Poeple were very sypersticious. Diseases were seen as teh result of sin.
3) MIASMA (see flashcard)
4)spontaneous generation (see flashcard)
MEDICINE IN THE MIDDLE AGES -MIASMA THEORY
1)What does the word miasma mean? 2)How didi people recognize "miasma vapors"? 3)how did doctors during the plague protect from miasma? 4) who was florence nightgale? 5)what did this theory lead to?
1) means vapor or mst made up of particles of decomposing material 2) miasma vapors were considered those with foul smell 3) by wearing masks with smelling flowers. 4) a woman taht believed in miasma and made hospitals clean, fresh and dry. 5) scientists got interested in decaying matter and led to the discovery of germs
MEDICINE IN THE RENAISSANCE -The scientifc method
- a way of thinking and researching -based on observatio n and careful notes -allowed the invention of teh microscope
MEDICINE IN THE RENAISSANCE -THE MICROSCOPE
1)Who was Anton Van Leehoek? 2)what did rober hooke do?
1) he invented one of the earliest microscopes by grinding lenses. He discovered bacteria, protists, sperm cells, blood.He called microorganisms "animacules" 2)one of the first men to build a reflecting microscope. He also wrote MICROPHAGIA which was a set observations with the microscope. It contatined a theory of combustion.
MEDICINE IN THE RENAISSANCE -Fracastoro
1) what here his most important works?
1)He wrote de contagione et contagiosis morbis et curationae: where he described numerous diseases and how they are spread. 2)Sive Morbis Gallicus: A book where he described syphyliis and gave its name.
MEDICINE IN THE RENAISSANCE -Francesco Redi
1)what is he famous for? 2)what did he conclude? 3)what didi poeple still doubted?
MEDICINE IN THE RENAISSANCE -Lazzaro Spallanzani
1)what did he do? 2)where did miroorganisms grew? 3)what did he conclude? 4)were people convinced?
MEDICINE IN THE RENAISSANCE -Louis Pasteur
1)why was his experiment so important? 2)what is pasteurization? 3)what did his experiment consist of? 4)what did he conclude and prove?
MEDICINE IN THE RENAISSANCE -Robert Koch 1)What did Kch do? 2)What is he considered the father of? 3)He discoverd the microbes that caused... 4)what is Koch's postulate?
MEDICINE IN THE RENAISSANCE -Joseph Lister
1)what did lsiter decided after knowng about pasteurs experiment? 2)he is most famous for introducing _(blank)__ in surgery?
1)that germs present in the air did not get into wounds 2)disenfectanct
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