"A new movement requires something to revolt against"; Freud opposed the current trend in...
the treatment of mental disorders
According to Freud, the "third shock" to the collective human ego was the realization...
that humans are not the rational commanders of their lives
A topic addressed by psychoanalysis and essentially ignored by the other schools of psychology was...
By the 18th century, abnormal behavior was deemed to be...
The person who most strongly influenced humane reforms for the mentally ill in the United States was...
The first psychiatrist in formal practice in the United States was...
Rush's treatment techniques reflect...
1. mechanistic theory
2. the somatic approach
3. what he thought were "humane" treatment innovations
4. early crude attempts at shock therapy and sedation
As a result of Freud's analysis of his own dreams, he recognized...
1. Sexual longings towards his mother
2. Sexual wishing toward his daughter
3. the outlines for the Oedipus complex
4. hostility toward his father
.... is an unconscious inability to bring into conscious awareness memories that are to shameful or painful to be faced.
.... is the process of forcefully ejecting or excluding from consciousness any unacceptable ideas, memories, and desires
Freud's overriding goal was to...
describe and explain the dynamics of human behavior
In his system of personality, Freud replaced the conscious/unconscious distinction with the concept of...
id, ego, and superego
According to Freud, the biological, need-related part of everyone's personality is the ...
The Oedipal conflict occurs during the...stage of development.
By the 1930s and the 1940s, psychoanalysis...
was wholeheartedly embraced by the American public
Experimental research on Freudian theory has shown that...
1. Some of his concepts are testable by the methods of science
2. some support for unconscious influences
3. Evidence for some Freudian concepts
4. some concepts have resisted attempts at scientific validation
The analyst...broke with Freud over his claim that women feel inferior to men.
Which four psycho theorists are considered a neo-Freudian?
Adler, Jung, Anna Freud, Horney
Object relations theorists emphasize...influences on personality
social and environmental
In contrast to Freud, object relations theorists believe that personality is formed...
during the first 6 months of life
According the object relations theorists, the most critical developmental issue for the child is...
to break free from primary object [mother] in order to establish a strong sense of self and develop relations to other objects [people]
Freud wanted...to take over the psychoanalytic school.
Like Freud, Jung's theory...
For Jung, sexuality was...
one of several needs that required satisfaction
Jung proposed that libido...
is a generalized life force
A component of the zeitgeist at the beginning of the 20th century that influenced some dissenters within psychoanalysis was the...
recognition of the influence of social factors
In Horney's system, the central idea is...
When the child responds to anxiety arising from parental actions by using unchanging behavioral strategies, he/she is exhibiting...
a neurotic need
The components of the Zeitgeist of the 1960s in the United States that were manifested in humanistic psychology was (were)...
1. rebellion against older order
2. a focus on personal fulfillment
3. an emphasis on the present
The humanistic psychologists insisted on the study of ....
neglected aspects of human nature.
It is the judgement of humanistic psychologists themselves that they...
did not become a formal school of thought
One of the strongest influence the humanistic systems exerted on psychology was the...
restoration of the study of consciousness to psychology
the humanistic theme that psychologists should study the best as well as the worst of human characteristics was reinstated by...
the positive psychology movement was initiated by...
the 1988 call for positive psychology has...
resulted in a strong increase in number of publications dealing with positive emotions
In the research on the characteristics of happy people, the happiest people...
are more successful and productive
the major difference between positive psychology and both humanistic psychology and psychoanalysis is that positive psychologists tend to use...while the other two approaches tend to use...
rigorous experimental methods; subjective case histories
Which schools made substantial contributions in psychology?
1. Gestalt psychology
there are no structural psychologists left in the United States. However, structual psychology was a success because it...
helped to establish psychology as an independent science
Of all the schools of psychology initiated by 1930, only behaviorism and psychoanalysis...
have maintained their identities
Cognitive psychology is concerned with...
the study of all mental processes such as perception, learning, memory, and problem solving.
In terms of its antecedent influences, cognitive psychology represents a return to...
1. the early attempts at a science of the mind and consciousness
2. the type of speculations engaged in by philosophers
4. the active role of the perceiver
the founder of cognitive psychology was...
there was no single founder
Which branch of pscyhology is the most recently developed appraoch?
the basic principle of evolutionary theory is that...
humans are biological creatures that have been programmed by evolution to behave, think and learn in ways that have fostered species survival.
Evolutionary psychologists assert that...
we are predisposed at birth to certain ways of behaving as shaped by evolution
Evolutionary psychology owes a debt to...
Darwin, James, and Spencer
The cognitive movement was...
an antecedent of evolutionary psychology
Evolutionary psychologists argue that the cognitive revolution...
1. did not go far enough
2. had little relevance for their work
3. omitted the source and purpose of our information-processing capability
4. did not go far enough omitted the source etc.
the thesis of sociobiology challenged the assumption that...
everyone is created equal
the term sociobiology...
has such a negative connotation that it has been dropped from use
1.incorporated the work of Wilson
2. is very popular
3. deals with psychological mechanisms that are programmed into humans because they were successful in human history
Criticisms of evolutionary psychology...
1. include learning theorists
2. point to the broad range of behavior with which it deals
3. point to the difficulty of testing the theory in any significant manner
All approaches to psychology have...
1. areas of vulnerability
3. contributed to the development of the discipline as a whole
the process of reducing or eliminating a complex by recalling it to conscious awareness and allowing it to be expressed.
behaviors that represent unconscious denials or distortions of reality but which are adopted to protect the ego against anxiety.
the technique whereby dreams are analyzed for their hidden and symbolic content in order to detect unconscious conflicts.
the rational aspect of personality responsible for controlling the instincts
The Emmanuel movement
begun by Elwood Worcester, a church rector, these were forms of talk therapy that swept through and became popular in America and predated Freud's visit to Clark University in 1909.
the "technique in which the patient says whatever comes to mind"
the source of psychic energy and the aspect of personality allied with the instincts.
at ages 4 to 5, the unconscious desire of a boy for his mother and the desire to replace or destroy his father.
the force which guides the Id, which seeks pleasure and avoids pain.
the process of ejecting or excluding from consciousness any unacceptable ideas, memories, and desires, leaving them to operate instead in the unconscious.
A blockage or refusal to disclose painful memories during a free association session.
the moral aspect of personality derived from internalizing parental and societal values.
A process where "a patient "responds to therapists as if the therapist were a significant person [such as a parent] in the patient's life.
the term Jung used for his system of thought
in Jung's system, the archetypes reflecting the characteristics of the opposite sex within us. Anima is "feminine characteristics in a man" and animus is "masculine characteristics in a woman."
In Jung's system, "inherited tendencies within the collective unconscious that dispose a person to behave similarly to ancestors who confronted similar situations.
IN Horney's system, the pervasive loneliness and helplessness, feelings that are the foundation of neuroses.
In Jung's system, the deepest level of the psyche; it contains inherited experiences of human and prehuman species.
In Jung's system, the libido is directed outward to make a person sociable and self-confident in a variety of situations
the name of Adler's system, which incorporated social as well as biological factors.
In Adler's system, a condition that develops when a person contemplative, introspective, and resistant to external pressures
In Horney's system, a behavioral strategy arising from neuroses. These include three broad trends: the compliant personality [need for approval, affection], the detached personality [need for independence, perfection], and the aggressive personality [need for power, exploitation]
In Jung's system, the archetype that is the mask each of us wears when we come in contact with other people.
In Jung's system, the reservoir of material that once was conscious but has been forgotten or suppressed.
a new focus, charged by Martin Seligman, to study positive aspects of being human instead of focusing on negative aspects
in Rogers system, the unconditional love of a mother for her infant
in Jung's system, the archetype that balances all aspects of the unconscious
in Maslow's system, the full development of one's abilities and the realization of one's potential
in Jung's system, the archetype that is the animalistic part of personality, but is also the wellspring of spontaneity, creativity, insight, and deep emotion.
Adler's innate potential to cooperate with other people to achieve personal and societal goals.
the idea proposed by Martin Seligman that it is easier to condition fear to naturally occurring dangers such as snakes and heights than to neutral objects like a car or pencil, this supports evolutionary psychology
John Searle's answer to the Turing test; a machine can seem to an observer to be understanding [or thinking] but in reality may simply be processing coded information using a set of given commands.
The computer manufactured by IBM that defeated the then-undefeated master chess player Gary Kasparov.
the term prefered instead of unconscious [which connotes Freudian psychoanalytic thought] to describe the information processing that occurs outside of conscious awareness
proposed by Alan Turing, a way to determine if machines can think: can a person tell whether they are interacting with a person or a machine?
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