Who was hired by Coca Cola to perform research in their 1911 court case?
The main reason Wundt's and titchener's systems didn't survive in the US was that they...
were not pragmatic
at the end of the 19th century the field of ... demanded the application of psychological principles to practical problems with rise in the private school education.
what persuaded psychologists to apply their expertise to problems in education?
an increase in public school enrollment
cattell was a strong proponent of...
who argued for the sterilization of mental defectives and delinquents and cash incentives for the best and the brightest to marry and have children?
Binet and simon's test differed from those of Galton and Cattell in its...
emphasis on the relationship of higher cognitive processes in intelligence.
One consequence of the adoption of the Stanford-Binet test in the US is that...
Public education has revolved around the IQ construct ever since
Unlike..., who used sensorimotor tests, ... assessed cognitive functions to measure intelligence.
Galton and Cattell; Binet
The intelligence test, first developed by..., is the basis for those still used today.
...used the Binet test at Ellis Island to restrict the entry of immigrants to the US.
With regard to racial differences in IQs, the work of... revealed southern whites test as less intelligent than northern blacks.
With regard to racial differences in IQs, the work of african american ... demonstrated the strong effects of enviroment.
The assessment and treatment of abnormal behavior in children was established in American Psychology by...
Witmer's methods of assessment and diagnosis...
were constructed as he needed them
The two most profound influences on the growth of clinical psychology as a specialty were...
WWII and the VA hospital system
Scott's hypothesis that consumers will do what they are told is called the...
law of suggestibility
The technique of telling consumers to "Use Brand X!" is traceable to ... law of ...
Which american psychologist is noteworthy for writing in industrial/organizational psychology, psychotherapy, and forensic psychology?
Who did Darwin call "our philosopher"?
Who coined the phrase "survival of the fittest"?
Who originated the idea of social Darwinism?
According to Spencer, the universe operates in accord with...
the principal of the survival of the fittest
Spencers  The Principles of Psychology was based on...
his synthetic philosophy
Who had an interest in mystical events or what we call parapsychology?
James was vocally criticized by other early psychologists because he...
studied psychic phenomena and moved away from scientific psychology
"The nasty little science" was Jame's description of...
"An elaboration of the obvious" was James's description of...
While today people might suffer from chronic fatigue syndrome, in James's day a very fashionable disorder to suffer from was ,,,
James believed that his bout of depression was relieved when he...
chose to believe in free will
William James used the term "stream of consciousness" to indicate...
that the changing nature of consciousness prevents its analysis into mental elements
For James, one's stream of consciousness...
is distorted when analyzed into distinct elements
James recommended the ... method to supplement introspection and experimentation
The basic tenet of ... is that the validity of an idea or conception must be tested by its practical consequences.
the "myth of male intellectual superiority" is derived from which of Darwin's ideas?
Woolley's research on sex differences and alleged male superiority was...
the first experimental test of the variability hypothesis of male superiority
Consistent with contemporary research on sex differences, Woolley found that...
there were no sex differences in mental intelligence
A unique aspect of woolley's dissertation research was the...
attribution of sex differences to social and environmental factors
Who arranged for Freud and Jung to visit and lecture in America?
Who was the founder and first president of the American Psychological Association?
The introduction of psychoanalysis to the American public was accomplished by...
Woodworth's system of psychology, concerned with casual factors and motivations in feelings and behavior, was known as...
The hallmark of Woodworth's psychology was his...
focus on motivation
Woodworth's psychology was distinct from the Chicago school in his...
emphasis on the physiological correlates to behavior
Functionalism was most loudly criticized by the...
The...ask, "What's the mind made of?" whereas the ... demand, "What does it do?"
Which of the following statements best summarizes the protest of functional psychology against Wundt and Titchener?
Functional psychology claimed that Wundt's and Titchener's approaches were too restrictive because they did not study the practical value of mental processes.
Functionalism was an intentional protest of the limitations of...
Wundt's experimentalism and Titchener's structuralism
..., a predecessor of Darwin, speculated that all mammals had evolved from a single filament and given movement by God.
Why, after many centuries of accepting biblical stories, did scholars question the one about Noah's ark?
There were too many identified species to fit two of each into a boat
When in england, Darwin displayed a wide variety of physical symptoms. These symptoms were probably...
psychosomatic-neurotic in origin
How many years did Darwin wait to present his theory publicly?
A theory of evolution based on natural selection was developed independently by...
Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace
The essential difference between Wallace's theory of evolution and Darwin's was that the work of the former...
did not have empirical data to support it
...is the preeminent book of Darwin's theory of evolution, which details the evolution of humans from lower forms of life.
On the Origin of Species
The most fundamental point of Darwin's theses was the..
process of natural selection
In his book..., Darwin emphasized the similarity between human and animal mental processes.
The Decent of Man
In the study of finches' beaks, the biologists Peter and Rosemary Grant found that...
Darwin had underestimated the power of natural selection
Galton's Hereditary genius was mainly concerned with...
a statistical analysis of the concept of eminent men producing eminent offspring
When Galton founded the science of Eugenics, he...
invented the term "eugenics"
The early 20th C. American government policy of sterilizing mentally retarded females is an example of...
Galton argued that what proportion of eminence coule be reliably attributed to environmental influences?
Galton studied paranoid disorders by...
imagining that every person or thing he saw was spying on him
According to ..., animals have no soul and thus are automata.
The notion that there is a continuity of consciousness and cognitive processes between animals and humans was suggested and/or demonstrated by...
The school of structuralism includes the work and/or systems of which of who?
Wundt's focus was on..., whereas titchener's was on...
synthesis of elements; analysis of elements
One of the main reasons that Tichener's thought was believed to closely parallel that of Wundt was that Titchener...
translated Wundt's books from German to English
Titchener excluded women from the meeting of the Titchener Experimentalists because women:
were too pure to smoke
Who was the first American woman to receive a Ph.D. degree in Psychology?
Margaret Floy Washburn
Of the 56 doctoral degrees titchener conferred, what percentage were given to women?
more than a third
Titcheners definition of the appropriate subject matter of psychology is...
Titchener argued that psychology is unique among the science because...
psychology alone is dependent on experiencing persons
Who defined the subject matter of psychology as being a conscious experience as that experience is dependent on the person who is actually experiencing it?
Titchener vigorously cautioned experimental psychologists about the stimulus error, that is, about...
describing the observed object rather than the experience of it
What are the three essential problems for psychology, according to Titchener?
1. to reduce the conscious processes to their simplest components
2. to determine laws by which these elements of consciousness were associated
3. to connect these elements with their physiological correlates.
What were three topics to be explored by Titcheners psychology?
1.the reduction of conscious processes
2.to identify the physiological correlates of the elements
3.The determination of the laws of association of elements of consciousness
Titcheners research led him to conclude that affective states had only...dimensions; namely...
By the 1920s, the term used by titchener for his system of psychology was...
A century before titcheners work the philosopher...wrote that the act of introspection itself altered the conscious experience being studied.
Who argued that the mind may abserve all phenomena but its own?
Ordinary words such as "table" were not to be used by titchener's introspectionists. Therefore, it became a goal to...
develop a working vocabulary free of meaning
In his treatment of women, titchener...
demonstrated both support of and obstruction of women in psychology
Describe the role of Thomas Henry Huxley in promoting Darwin's theory.
Thomas Huxley defended Darwin
Huxley took Darwins place in a debate at Oxford and was responsible for propounding Darwin's ideas thereafter.
In what ways did Darwin's data and ideas alter the subject matter and methods of psychology?
1. animals become appropriate research subjects [their minds are similar to ours if we share heritage]
2. "an emphasis on the functions rather than the structure of consciousness"
3. Incorporating methods and data from diverse fields [not relying solely on the psychophysics method of Fechner and Wundt]
4. Individual differences
Why did the approaches of psych pursued by Wundt and Titchener fail to survive in the US?
partly due to the american zeitgest, which valued practicality. dramatic increase in public school enrollment opened doors for applied psychologists.
Define the concepts of mental age, how is it calculated?
the age at which children of average ability can perform certain tasks
Define IQ, how is it calculated?
created by William Stern, and is the ration of one's mental age to one's chronological age. IQ is measured by intelligence tests, which measure more complex mental processes. IQ is also standardized according to the bell curve, and this a more accurate measure of distribution.
How was the industrial-organizational psychology affected by the Hawthorne studies and the wars?
H.Studies set out to determine "the effects of the physical work environment" on productivity. instead it was discovered that the workplace is a complex social environment, which lead to the human relations movement and the expansion of Industrial Psych into Industrial/Organizational Psych.
COnsciousness vs. Mind
Tichener defines consciousness as the sum of our experiences as they exist at a given moment in time, while mind is the sum of our experiences accumulated over a lifetime.
Titch's three Elementary states of consciousness
1. Sensations: basic elements of perception [sight, sound, smell etc]
2. Images: elements of ideas not present in the moment [memories]
3. Affective states: the elements of emotions [what you feel]
Titch favored this term over "structuralism". Demonstrates his move away from examining the elements of experience toward experiences as they occur in whole
the sole technique used by titch, a form of self-observation that relied on observers being rigorously trained. Observers were required to report on the elements of their conscious state [experience]
The term titch used to describe a substance that is used solely to detect other substances.
Confusing the mental process under the study of the stimulus or object being observed
reflects titch's effort to discover the elements and structures underlying conscious experience
a new science founded by Galton, it's aim was to improve the stock of the human race by encouraging those with "noble qualities" to reproduce
Darwin's theory which explains how species change over time, it has three components: individuals vary in characteristics, some characteristics are inherited, and some of these characteristics are more suited tot he environment than others.
Name of the ship carrying Darwin on his 5 year voyage around the world
Law of Parsimony
"The notion that animal behavior must not be attributed to a higher mental process when it can be explained in terms of a lower mental process," also called morgan's canon
On the Origin of Species 
The famous book in which Darwin outlines the theory of evolution supported by overwhelming evidence
Economist whose work on the growth of food vs. populations inspired Darwin's thinking.
A pandemic of neurotic symptoms that afflicted the wealthy and well educated in the late 1800s
The idea, supported by James, that "the vailidity of ideas is measured by their practical consequences"
"The connection between sensory stimuli and motor responses," and discussed in Dewey's article that criticizes structuralism
James' conception of self is made up of 1) the material ["our body, family, home, or style of dress"], 2) the social ["recognition we get from others"], and 3) the spiritual ["the inner subjective being"]
The belief, created by Herbert Spencer, that Darwin's theory of evolution applied to all aspects of the universe, including the mind and human behavior.
Stream of Consciousness
"James' idea that consciousness is a continuous flowing process and any attempt to reduce it to elements will distort it"
Survival of the Fittest
Phrase associated with Darwin's theory of evolution, coined by Herbert Spencer.
"Spencer's idea the knowledge and experience can be explained in terms of evolutionary principles"
"The notion that men show a wider range and variation of physical and mental development than women."
Army Alpha and Army Beta
Tests developed by psychologists to help classify soldiers in WW1 [beta was used for those without english proficiency or literacy]
A drug according to the newly-formed FDA, which caused the Federal government to take Coca Cola to court.
Field created by Lightener Witmer to assist children who had educational difficulties
Multi-year study with intention to study physical environment on productivitiy, the real finding is the effect of the social environment on productivity and psyhcological variables.
Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Field created by Walter Scott that applies psychology to advertising and business
A concept originating with William Stern, the ratio of mental to chrinological age.
The age at which children of average ability can perform certain tasks, and is developed by Binet and Simon
Term coined by James McKeen Cattell in an article he published in 1890, although his mental tests look more like tests of sensorimotor abilities than cognitive ability.
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