Please know about the background influences that we traced for the following performers: Lucinda Williams ?Too Cool to be Forgotten?- talks about Robert Johnson, a Delta Blues Player Red Hot Chili Peppers Funk influence; punk influence: Dead Kennedys; slap-bass sound influenced by Sly and the Family Stone; Jimi Hendrix; Eric Clapton; George Clinton (Producer) Amy Winehouse Mary J. Blige; Sara Vaughn; Girl Group beats; Aretha Franklin, Carole King Radiohead Nirvana-lite; Perez; Terry Riley; Velvet Underground; Pink Floyd; Miles Davis-experimental jazz; Brian Eno; Talking Heads Country Roots Ballads (story song) Topics Lyric structure "Hillbilly" Music 1920s starting to be recorded songs Hillbilly Stringband began as guitar and banjo made it into rural areas Gid Tanner and the Skillet Lickers ?Soldier?s Joy? early country bands made fun of hillbillies Grand Ole Opry Ralph Peer- Victor Records, Bristol, TN: ?the birthplace of country music? Carter Family Jimmie Rodgers from Mississippi; ?blue yodels? ?Waitin? for a train? Louis Armstrong on trumpet This combination of genres was happening because of recordings and radio Honkey Tonk Hank Williams Sr. Early Popular Music in America Minstrel Shows Dan Emmett (song-writer): ?Da Boatman?s Dance? fiddle, banjo, bones, tambourine also wrote ?Dixie? Stephen Foster (song-writer) ?Old Uncle Ned? Instrumentation Race and class issues white men playing ?slave? instruments using a mix of slave music and their own music?very racist painted faces black first example of white people stealing black music from the north?not even familiar with slaves Tin Pan Alley Pop Sheet Music Irving Berlin Bing Crosby Frank Sinatra Patty Paige African and African American Roots African musical traits Syncopation- putting emphasis on any beat but the down beat Swing feeling- beat/rhythm to dance Blue notes- notes in between traditional notes; two notes that clash Rattle and Buzz- ?dirtying the sound?; tones with an accompanying rattle or buzz Call and Response- heavy use Improvisation African Drumming Music of West Africa has always been a part of everyday life Rhythmic elements are a huge part of the music Even though Africans brought their music to America, they lost a lot of specifics of their music, it generally stayed the same Couldn?t sing native songs, bring instruments, etc. Because of this, early African American music wasn?t purely African?it was immediately mixed with western music Spirituals mixtures of European hymns and African styles Bessie Jones and the Sea Island Singers ?Sheep, Sheep don?t you know the road?? recorded off the coast of South Carolina Had double meaning?came out of slave trading due to Christianizing of the slaves. Had all instruments taken away, until fiddle and banjo were taught by slave owners so they could be played for dancing. Country Blues 12-bar blues each line fits within 12 bars; tend to have a typical format: AAB Robert Johnson King of the Delta Blues Influence of image and music on rock myth that he sold his soul to the devil?set the stage for lifestyles of current rockstars ?Crossroad Blues? slide guitar; call and response between him and the guitar Rhythm and blues Most important in the roots of rock Grew out of late 1800?s, crystallized in early 1900?s Developed out of hardships of life of early African American life How it was a threat Joe Turner Big Mama Thornton ?Hound Dog? Cover Phenomenon "Shake Rattle and Roll" Joe Turner Bill Haley The Birth of Rock The "cover" phenomenon wanted to make money, record companies took advantage of black music, most of these kids were like other white teens that loved the music Pat Boone covered ?Tutti Frutti? with Specialty Records Bill Haley covered Joe Turner?s ?Shake, Rattle, and Roll? Teenagers wanted to listen to the black artists, but had to settle for the white covers to avoid conflict with parents Rebellion Major versus independent record labels major companies ignored black artists Columbia, RCA, Deca, Capital, MGM and Mercury independent companies took a chance on R&B and Rock Sun, Chess Radio and Disc Jockeys Alan Freed Rock and Roll- played late night for teens Doo Wop Characteristics First example of mixing elements Started with people singing on the streets; wasn?t about sex, blues, or dance Brought blacks and whites together Crossing over ? the Orioles, the Crows Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers New Orleans Rock 'n Roll Cosimo Matassa Owner and chief engineer of J&M studio, where all of the New Orleans groups recorded Devised a simple plan for rock recording similar to that used by George Goldner: set the dials at some sensible level, turn on the tape machine and let the performers wail; no electronic manipulation or overdubing Little Richard, Ray Charles Later attempts at creating the same effects with more technology failed Dave Bartholomew Trumpet player, leader of the best New Orleans R$B group of the late 40s and 50s Wrote and arranged and played for Fats Domino and other stars of the period In two decades after WWII he kept a stable of first-class musicians together blowing in clubs like the Dew Drop Inn and Club Tijuana Earl Palmer, master of bass-drum syncopation and possibly most inventive drummer rock has ever had, was the mainstay in his organization One of the most successful tunesmiths of the time Fats Domino (Antione Domino) ?I?m Walkin?, ?Blueberry Hill? Popularity Safer for whites because of pop-ish style, even country influence Did not break away from tradition?sustained it Dave Bartholomew Image Squeaky image?non-threatening Sold over 65 million records ?Ain?t that a shame? crossed color line in 1955 Little Richard (Richard Wayne Penniman) Comparison to Domino More threatening because of flamboyance, in-your-face ?Tutti Frutti?- had to change lyrics?began as a gay novelty song Opinions about Race issues / Pat Boone Left home as a young teenager to join Doctor Hudson?s Medicine Show (circus) Learned from Eskew Reeder, flamboyant R&B pianist Elvis Presley Paradox of personality good southern boy vs. rebel who shook hips and performed black music Background truck driver growing up?parents bought him a guitar, but he didn?t want it. Ended up carrying it everywhere. Sun Records went in 1953 to record songs as a gift for his mom?persistent about wanting to keep recording Sam Phillips saw more potential Popularity Scotty and Bill Sam hired them to play in his group Three of them recorded ?That?s Alright Mama? Col. Tom Parker took advantage of Elvis?s qualities and packaged them first artist with dolls, tee shirts, etc. The making of his first recordings raw, white southern twang+bluesy sound= rockabilly Move from Sun to RCA contract sold for $35,000 first RCA hit: ?Heartbreak Hotel? kept Scotty and Bill Issues of race around the ?King? of Rock ?n Roll people thought he was black until they saw him on TV Rockabilly Purest of all rock genres?it never went anywhere Predominantly white southern male music Blues inspired, bluegrass based Sun records After Elvis?s success, Sam Philips hardly ever covered another black artist (most of his former artists were black) Elvis Presley Rockabilly started with Elvis, and in a sense, ended with him Jerry Lee Lewis Sold all the eggs from his father?s farm to get to Memphis?waited there until given an audition Vocal and pianisitic acrobatics ?the killer? Carl Perkins Low-paying gigs and doing a live radio show in Jackson, TN?heard of Elvis?s success with Sun Records, so he went to record ?Blue Suede Shoes? Instrumental brilliance Johnny Cash Buddy Holly ?The Day the Music Died??about him and several other artists that died in a plane crash; Buddy was 22 years old. Between 1957 and 1958 he had seven Top Forty hits Communicated in song after song his joyful acceptance of ?true love ways,? his indivertible expectation of someday finding a love ?so rare and true? Absorbed, transformed, and revitalized ?baby talk? with phrases like ?Maybe baby?, ?Oh boy,? and ?oops a daisy? Influences Black musicians such as Washboard Sam, Tampa Red, Lonnie Johnson, and Arthur Crudup Childlike, pure, clean image?songs often contradicted Chicago R&B Bo Diddley Chuck Berry Songwriting- significant song writer; not a teen, but he knew what they wanted to hear Guitar Playing Chess Records went to see hero: Muddy Waters, directed him to Chess Song Style big blues influence, also country and pop ?Mabeline? country-western ?Roll Over Beethoven? Payola Scandal What is payola? A record company pays a radio station to play a song a certain number of times a day; pay for play What was the scandal and who was involved? Government got involved?went after people promotion Rock and Black music Alan Freed- career ruined Dick Clark- should have gotten in trouble as well, but had investments in labels, distributors, publishers A note about studying the textbook: You are responsible for the general themes in the readings. You do not need to spend your time memorizing details from the readings (though there may be a detailed extra credit question or two). Rather, use the readings mostly to reinforce the lectures. But do make sure you are familiar with the general themes even if we didn?t cover them in class.
Want to see the other 11 page(s) in History of Rock Test 1 Study Guide.doc?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!