Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
Studied the mind as an accumulation of functions & processes that lead to practical consequences in the real world. It focused on practical & utilitarian,application, and outcomes (how mental life/experiences caused effects). Says mental processes lead to practicalconsequences that are useful to the organism. Sought to apply psych to settings where it couldimpact peoples’ lives
Studied the potential applicationsof psychology to everyday problems of how people function in and adapt todifferent environments
- The intellectual culture was ready for this theory at thetime because scientists and philosophers had already proposed evolutionarytheories and books on evolution had been published and discussed widely. The tenets for this theory were already inplace by 1859 when Darwin published "On the Origin of Species'
in 1844 he published the “Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation”;was a best seller in Europe & US; it described plant and animal evolutionand proposed that humans came from primates
Any population contains individuals that are slightlydifferent; the environment places survival demands on a species; those memberswho can meet those demands survive and pass on their genes; in subsequentgenerations adaptive traits become more common and the species changes
In 1842 he completed his first ‘sketch’ of his theory (35pages), in 1844 he expanded with a 200 word essay, and 15 years later in 1859he completed his work because of COMPETITION
- In June 1858 he received a letter from naturalist AlfredWallace. Wallace was seeking feedbackfrom Darwin about ideas very similar to Darwin’s work but he had little to nosupporting evidence. Therefore, Wallace’swork made Darwin complete his work on evolution by natural selection
- He proposed Mental Testing to identify superiorpeople. He assumed the mental abilitycould be tested by looking at sensory systems. This idea was based on Locke’s empirical view – all knowledge comesthrough the senses. To measure mentalability he developed many devices for studying the sensory systems and hedeveloped prototypes for what became standard laboratory equipment.
- Developed the first word-association test in1883. He reported his initial, sometimes ‘half conscious’ mental associations to a list of 75 words; each encountered 4 times. Found thatresponses were fairly consistent and were often (~40%) related tochildhood. Lead him to proposeideas highly similar to Freud’s later idea of the unconscious.
- Was one of the first to study mental imagery in1883 & found that imagery ability was normally distributed.
He established the Anthropometric Laboratory in1884. His goal was to measure physicaland mental characteristics of the English population. In 6 years he measured over 9,000people. Participants had to pay to ‘seethe lab’. This is now some of the bestdescriptive data of the population during that time.
Darwin’s theory led to idea of mental continuumacross animals; was a drasticchange in how people thought about the world. Pre-Darwin Descartes’ view was accepted: no mind exists in animals. Darwin said “theres no fundamental difference b/t man & higher mammals in their mental faculties. Animal psych began.
- In 1872 Darwin pub. “The Expression of Emotion in Man & Animals”. Proposed human emotional expressions stemmed from animalposturing.
He was the philosopher who developed the ideas of SocialDarwinism and Synthetic Philosophy. Heapplied evolutionary theory to everything, including human character and social institutions, in accordance with the term 'survival of the fittest' which he coined. He extended Darwin’s ideas toeverything.
- He wanted the government to take a laissez-faire stance, especiallyw/ regards to economics. Said thatany attempt to regulate business or industry, or to provide social programs(welfare, social assistance, education subsidies) should be opposed. Says government programs are detrimental –the unfit (individuals & organizations) are aided which helps them survive.
- With no interference into the natural order of things,human perfection was inevitable.
- During the Industrial Revolution, the U.S. mindsetembodied Spencer’s ideas – we were a pioneer nation, only thehard-working thrived. Self-sufficiencyand independence were key ideas, railroads and large businesses thrived. Thelaws of natural selection were being played out on a day to day basis.
- The focus was on: the practical, the useful, and thefunctional; this was adopted in psychology
- People were already interested in Darwin's Evolutionary Theory and Spencer just expanded on it
- Hewas one of psych’s most importantpeople but he saw it as a mere “elaboration of the obvious” & he didnot want to be seen as a psychologist.
- He recognized the importance of the experimental approachbut did almost no experimental work; he also showed great interest in ‘anti-experimental’things like psychic phenomena
- He was seen as “Father of American Psychology” but didnot found a movement (like Freudian Psych) & he didn't have disciplesor a formal system
It offered psychologists a new way of thinkingabout the mind. It questioned how dodetermine what is conscious/non-conscious & how do we make choices? This “new way of thinking about psych” said - Psychology is NOT the study of elements - Psychology IS the study of people using consciousness toadapt to the environment; we should study the function of consciousness b/c consciousness an adaptive tool – it aids in survival & w/o ithumans could not have evolved
Consciousness allows us to focus on what is important, itallows us to make choices and it aids in survival
James’s theory of emotions was a reversal of previousthinking and it came to be known as the James-Lange Theory. It proposed that emotional experience FOLLOWSbody experiences. This feeling of bodychanges leads to the experience of emotion.
- Arousal of the physical response precedes the appearance of the emotion, especially for coarser emotions like anger/fear...
We now know this is not always true and we can experience theseconcurrently or reversed.
This is who we are and how we present ourselves to the world
- The Material Self – what we call uniquely our own; body,family, home, style of dress; we identify ourselves by our possessions
- The Social Self – the self as recognized by others; many ‘socialselves’ exist and they are based on who we are with. Part of ourselves is inside other people
- The Spiritual Self – the ‘inner’ or subjective self;emotions, thoughts, consciousness
James recognized that much ofhuman behavior is based on habits and instincts, however, James did NOT feelthat these were automatic and invariable.
- He recognized that habits areformed through conscious repetition; through intention. Habits are modified by experience and arefunctional. This also related James’sfocus on the body/brain and he formed a neurophysiological explanation ofhabit.
During 1800s/early 1900s a key societal idea wasthat women were functionally inferior to men. This was largely based on the variability hypothesis. Darwin noted that males of many speciesexhibited greater variability for physical characteristics and abilities. Females tended to cluster around the average;this led to the idea that women were basically average and unlikely to excel inspecial settings.
Due to being ‘average’ women were assumed to be lessreceptive to varied and stimulating environments – women end up being excludedfrom social life and academia. This wasrelated to the idea that women would be ‘ruined’ if exposed to anything beyondbasic schooling.
Galton’s goal: encourage the birth of moreeminent or fit individuals in society & discourage the birth of theunfit. Wanted to foster theimprovement of the inherited qualities of the human race. Argued that humans, like animals, could be bred to produce betterstock. He followed artificial selection –only the best should reproduce for betterment of mankind. Proposed idea of mental testing to determine who should reproduce; led to studies on individualdifferences. Proposed thatsociety has dysgenic conditions; practices are in place that aid thereproduction of unfit.
AKA Father of Comparative Psychology. He performed observational studies with techniquesthat were highly anthropomorphic & relied heavily on anecdotal evidence. Published “Animal Intelligence”in 1883 to show there is no difference b/t the acts ofreason performed by crab and the acts of reason performed by man. Developed the ‘mental ladder’ where hearrayed various animal species in order of their mentalfunctioning using introspection by analogy
Evolution could be applied to humannature & society. Idea that the development of all aspects of the universe is evolutionary,including human character/social institutions. It applies the theory of evo tohuman nature & society. Onlythose individs & social institutions that could adapt to changing demandswould survive. Believedsociety would be improved if the ‘unfit’ could perish; stressed thatgovernment/social programs should not interfere w/ the natural progress ofevolution.
Proposed by James; consciousness is acontinuous flow, always changing & attempts to divide it only distortit. Since it's a continuous flow, it'salways changing/never recurrent. Therefore, the same mental state can never happen or exist again; it willbe slightly different b/c of the accumulation of experiences. The mind is continuous (we dont experiencebreaks in consciousness) & selective (we cant attend to everything at once) it uses attention to focus on whats relevant
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!