HISTORY OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION Past and Present John Comenius (1592-1670) Bishop Believed universal education must begin early and continue throughout adulthood?lifelong learning Learning should Follow the order of natural development Build on background knowledge Appeal to the child?s perception Involve play as part of learning John Comenius Prenatal education important Wrote the first picture book, Orbis Pictus Believed that children were born in the image of God The role of education was to educate to the fullest abilities in order to fulfill the Godlike image Jean Rousseau (1712-1778) Philosopher Believed that children were innately good The environment misshapes growth Should allow children to develop naturally Make the curriculum fit the child not the other way around What do we do now? Jean Rousseau Recognized individual differences Wrote Emile which stated that children do not learn for books but learn best from real experiences Johann Pestalozzi (1746-1827) Teacher Worked with children directly to develop theories Believed education begins at birth Believed individual differences condition development Concerned about bias of social status and appearance Believed that life-related education would wipe out poverty Puritan School Law Passed in 1647 Community churches were to support primary schools to teach reading in order to read the Bible Constitution does not mention education Role of the states Source of the differences in education in various areas of the country What role does the federal government play now? Frederick Oberlin French Protestant Minister Help develop schools for young children in 1767 His wife taught children as young as two?first preschools? Curriculum focused on play and handicrafts She knitted as she talked with children?called ?knitting schools? Used pictures to talk and develop vocabulary Robert Owen-Businessman-1771-1854 Owned and operated textile mills in England Believed that man was innately good Believed that character was formed by environment?who does this sound like? Interested in social reform Banned young children from working in his mills Robert Owen Education important in providing a wholesome environment for development Social experiment?created a community for this to happen-came to America and established the community of New Harmony, Indiana What do you think happened? Friedrich Froebel German teacher Known as the ?Father of Kindergarten? Kindergarten is German for ?children?s garden? Developed theory of how young children learn Through real, natural everyday experiences Not through contrived, artificial learning Not adult experiences tailored for children Believed play is important way for children to learn Planned play activities designed for learning-included manipulative educational materials Opened school in Blackberg, Germany to test theory Froebel Example: Math?learning to count Froebel Snack time Children count out napkins by giving one to each child Children count each child for attendance Artificial Dittoes and worksheets ?counting? by repeating number words in order One, two, three etc Maria Montessori (1870-1952) Medical Doctor Worked with slum children in Italy Casa di Bambini?for slum children Realized the role of poverty in ?at risk? children Learning must be adapted to the individual Designed materials for learning Hands on but very structured Self corrected activities We now know that structured activities is important for children who must ?catch up? Montessori Play not emphasized No singing, dramatic play, or creative activities Not designed for the ?normal learner? but for at risk originally Currently is view as ?upscale? and exclusive Patty Smith Hill (1869-1946) Scientific study of children Play important as way of learning?developed toys Importance of creative approaches using art and music Individualized curriculum Cookbook vs. checkerboard teaching Importance of the home in learning Founded the National Association for Nursery Education?Became the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) John Dewey(1859-1952) Father of the progressive movement At the time of Dewey schools were Teacher controlled Subject matter controlled Rote learning no consideration for individual differences How are they today? Dewey Dewey believed Children need to be engaged in meaningful learning Children need a wide variety of experiences Not subject matter oriented?(standards?) Curriculum built on the interest of children Dewey Work in groups and learn about community Use of concrete materials Curriculum should be based on the whole child?cognitive, physical, emotional and social Some felt that progressivism meant that ?children ran the show??not what it meant Benjamin Bloom Found that intelligence measured at 17 is developed in early years. What does this suggest about the importance of early childhood education? Bloom?s taxonomy Levels of learning/questioning Knowledge?read and regurigate Comprehension-understnading Application-use the information in some way Analysis Synthesis evaluation Jerome Bruner Studied language, play, thinking and curriculum Key to good teaching Understand the child?s development and how he views the world and then translate the subject to some form that fits the child?s views Does this fit the behaviorist or the constructivists philosophy? History of Kindergarten in the United States First kindergarten German immigrants-kdg started in Germany continued here Established in 1865 in Watertown, WI by Mrs. Carl Schurz Only German spoken Duplicated Froebel?s program Private for German children only First English speaking kdg Established by Elizabeth Peabody Boston in 1870 Private Peabody had studied in Germany First Public kindergarten Established by Susan Blow 1873 in St. Louis Based on Peabody?s model NEA-National Education Association Established department of kindergarten in 1874 Recommended kindergarten to be part of public school system Still not mandatory for children to attend Change in Kindergarten Curriculum and approach changed drastically in the 60?s Not longer a ?child?s garden? Become junior first grades Even more true today Curriculum ?pushed down? Why? What happen in the late 50?s? Race for space with Russia and the cold war Sputnik was launched in 1957 Caused an emphasis in math and science Fear of Russia Children expected to learn more sooner Philosophy is continuing Current Leaders in Early Childhood Constance Kamii Focused on math education Studied with Piaget Autonomy is the goal in education Children should be able to taught to think in such a way that they can find their own errors Current Leaders in Early Childhood David Elkind Is concerned that children are stressed by academic tasks being introduced too early-damaging Wrote The Hurried Child, Preschooler at Risk, and Ties that Stress Need time for play and self selected activities DAP teaching will make children better able to deal with stress later Leaders in Early Childhood Education Lillian Katz Expert in the teaching and learning process Teachers should focus on the outcomes of experiences School should focus not only on knowledge but also attitudes (interaction with others) and dispositions (inclination to continue as well as behaviors in the activities) Developmentally inappropriate activities can result in ?learned stupidity? which means feelings of inadequacy resulting from inappropriate activities Current Leaders in Early Childhood Education David Weikart Founded the Perry Preschool Program for poor, minority students High Scope Educational Foundation Based on Piaget?s theories Emphasis on relating experiences to language?development of language is related to cognitive development Help children make choices Help children solve their own problems Current Leaders in Early Childhood Education Burton White Researcher from Harvard Wrote, The First Three Years of Life States that the foundation for language, curiosity, and social skills are in place by age two Emphasized the importance of parents (especially the mother) in this process One on one relationship with an adult, preferably the mother offers the best opportunity for successful development
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