Orders or Estates France: three estates of clergy(church), nobility, 3rd estate Elsewhere: clergy, nobility, towns, free peasants Serfs do no have an order because they have no rights Hereditary ? principle of inequality Those who are nobles/clergy ? superior to towns, everyone is superior to serfs, etc. Status not by wealth but by order/estate Life expectancy 17th ? 25 18th ? 25-30 25% die before age 1, 25% die before 8 20% die between 8-50, 20% die between 50-70, 10% die 70+ Nobility Hereditary ? sword Service ? robe France: 2-3% (400,000) 25-30% land England: titled peers ? 1% (400) ¼ arable land gentry 50,000 ? acquired wealth/land, sufficiently wealthy second group within nobility nobility ? 4/5 land Primogeniture ? leave estate in class and give it to eldest son Birth values: honor, military, bravery, leadership, manners , culture, marriage, dress English parliament, French Parliament Pay no taxes Peasants: free tenants, serfs Clergy France: 130,000 (0.05%) 10% land High (aristocracy) Low (parish priest) Tithes ? pay no taxes Towns France: 16% Low Countries: 20% Russia: 3% Dangerous class: 20% (beggars, prostitutes, criminals) Servants 20% (12% female) Artisans 40% - guilds (master, apprentice, journeyman), just price, monopoly, social responsibility (80% income necessities) Deserving and dishonest poor (poor 50% income for bread) Bread Riots JUST PRICE: you have the right to have a profit, but you do not have a right to charge anything you want for your goods While you have a right to a profit, people have to be able to afford what you sell Artisans become scared of industrial revolution Changes the way things are sold/ bought Middle Class (Bourgeoisie) 20% of urban population -20/25% land Shopkeeper (retail) Professional (lawyer, doctor, bureaucrat) High Middle Class ? Merchant, bank, manufacture Values: wealth, property, hard work, saving, education, family, sobriety, religion, discipline children
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