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All but which of the following are factors in the Milankovitch theory of glacial growth and retreat.
Confirmation that change is the three orbital parameters can cause the growth and retreat of glaciers came from ___________ and an analysis of the __________________.
Marine cores ------- Oxygen Isotopes in foraminifera
The oceans play an important role in climate changes because the oceans hold _____________ as the atmosphere
During the last glacial maximum, mountain glacier grew
Oxygen isotopes in seawater closely tracks the proportion of the world's water that is locked up in glaciers. When glacier grow -----
There is a higher the proportion of oxygen 18 in the sea water
When there is more ice, then there is an/a _____________ and the earth ___________.
Increase in albedo ________ cools
The Younger Dryas climatic event resulted in _________________ and ______________ Atlantic "conveyor,"
Global cooling ____ shut-down of the
Glaciers advance when
More snow accumulates in winter than melts in during cooler summers.
After cold, dark "nuclear winter" phase did temperatures soar on Earth?
Global forest fires increase the greenhouse gases and caused the Earth to warm.
Is there truth in this statement, "In this sense, the Chicxulub crater is the crucible of human evolution."
Yes, because mammals survived the mass extinction event and mammals diversified after Dinosaurs went extinct.
After the extinction, what plants were the first to recover?
The impact of asteroid that formed the Chicxulub Crater would have caused the following:
The dinosaur extinction that occurred around 65.5 million years ago was -------------.
Throughout the world, layers _________ was found indicating that there was widespread _______________.
The high abundance of what element led to the hypothesis that an asteroid ~10 km collide with the earth?
The Chicxulub crater in ____________ was about __________ in diameter.
Yucatan, Mexico -------- 180 to 200 km
A number of major animal groups disappeared from the fossil record after the impact, such as __________________.
Name this early ancestor of modern whales. Did this animal swim primarily in freshwater or in saltwater?
Ambulocetus Primarily in freshwater
______________ is one of the earliest whale and its ____________ are see similar to later whales like Basilosaurus.
Pakicetus ----- teeth
We know the early ancestors of Basilosaurus lived ______________ because of the presence of _____________________.
On land ------ a small pelvis and hind limbs
This animal "hears" with the assistance of its lower jaw bone and a dense bone called a bulla
This a tooth whale (Odontoceti) and it is able to echolocate
This is a Baleen whale (mysticetes) and it has a vestigial hip and leg bones
When did the modern suborders of Cetaceans evolve?
In the Oligocene, when there was increase in ocean productivity when there was more food for the whales to eat.
After studying the ankle bones Rodhocetus, an early whale, it was concluded that whales are most closely related to ________________.
Even-toed hoofed mammals, like camels and hippopotamuses
By studying the oxygen isotope values (ratio of 18O to 16O) in the bones of Ambulocetus, it was concluded that
Ambulocetus spent most of its time in freshwater
What structure or structures help whales to hear underwater?
The evolution in whales shows a transition form a walking to swimming animal. What modifications occurred for whales to become powerful swimmers?
modification of the forelimbs and hands into flippers
development of a massive tail
This animal lived about 200,000 - 28,000 years ago. Who is it?
This animal lived between about 3.85 and 2.95 million years ago. Who is it?
Did Neanderthals and Homo sapiens interbreed? (look at the most recent data)
Yes. In fact, up to 4 percent of the DNA of people today who live outside Africa came from Neanderthals.
How did Neanderthals hunt?
Male and females ambushed large, relatively solitary mammals
What gave the Homo sapiens the edge over Neanderthals?
Homo sapiens migrated into Neanderthals' territory in Europe when the climate was ___________________.
Cooling. Glaciers were advancing and there was climate instability.
The diet of Homo sapiens was ___________ than Neanderthals, who eat mainly ___________.
more varied ---------- large animals
Some characteristics of Neanderthal indicate that they were adapted to the cold weather. What are these features?
This animal lived between about 1.89 million and 70,000 years ago. What is it?
'You have a small capacity for reason, some basic tool-making skills, and the use of a few simple words' … Yep. That's you." Who is this?
Human's have __________ Neanderthals which means that ___________ could have a full range of speech.
A longer pharynx than ------ humans
As early as 32,000 years ago, our species demonstrate all but the following
Modern human's cognitive capacity resulted from
putting exiting neurologic networks to perform new tasks
How did humans become such extraordinary cognitive creatures?
Did Neandertals have symbolic abilities similar to humans?
Yes, but these abilities did not seem that important to the Neanderthals
Is language needed to teach stone tool making?
When you examine the human body, one can ______
Find modified fish and worm structures
We inherited the major nerves we use in breathing from
When did the bones of the throat come into such an orientation to indicate that humans could speak?
About a half a million years ago with Homo heidelbergensis. The structure in H. heidelbergensis was almost the same as modern humans.
The only living descendent of the Sivapithecus lineage is the ___________.
The first ape, Proconsul, evolved in ______________, but _____________ was the birthplace of the dryopethecus apes that gave rise to the great apes and the human clade.
Both Dryopithecus and Sivapithecus lineages are rooted in ______________, but ___________ migrated to Africa and ____________ migrated to Asia.
Europe --------- Dryopithecus -------Sivapithecus
Dryopithecus skull resembles that of a __________ chimpanzee and they are ancestor to _______________.
juvenile ------ African apes and humans.
What caused the extinction of most the Miocene Apes?
Climate change led to the replacement of forests with woodlands and grasslands
What a primitive Miocene ape, is thought to have been the last common ancestor of the living hominoids?
Before any fossil apes were discovered, Darwin wrote "_________ was formerly inhabited by extinct apes closely allied to the gorilla and chimpanzee; as these two
species are now man’s closest allies,"
Like modern apes, Dryopithecus and Sivapithecus ate
Early apes traveled along tree branches __________ whereas modern African Ape adaptations to
on all fours ---------- on the ground—knuckle walking
Apes and humans differ from all of the other primates in that they ____________________.
Genetic data confirms that our closest living relative is _____________ and that we shared a common ancestor about ____________ .
Why is the reduction in the size of canines significant in Ardipithecus ramidus ?
It indicates that females preferred less-aggressive male behavior.
The key feature that distinguishes Homo sapiens from other primates is our __________ whereas Ar. ramidus had a __________
Unusually large brain ---------- a small brain similar in size to chimpanzees
The earliest known hominid is
Unlike chimpanzees which displays sex skin swelling during estrus, Ardipithecus ramidus is reproductive crypsis What is reproductive crypsis, and why is it important for our evolution?
Females did not advertise ovulation and therefore males needed to maintain a pair bond to successfully reproduce.
How does Ar. ramidus differ from earlier hominids?
Modification of __________ enabled Ardipithecus to become bipedal even though it maintained its ________________.
its upper pelvis -------- grasping big toe
If Ardipithecus ramidus females were to place an ad in Match.com then what would they say that they preferred in a mate?
males that will provide food (vested provisioning) in exchange for sex
aggressive males with large canines
Ardipithecus lived in a ___________ environment and, based on the size and shape of their teeth, we can assume that that they had __________________ .
Woodlands -------- an omnivore diet,
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