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Anthology Of Classical Myth: Primary Sources in Translation : with Additional Translations by Other Scholars and an Appendix on Linear B sources by Thomas G. Palaima
The Epic of Gilgamesh (Penguin Classics)
The Iliad of Homer
The Oresteia: Agamemnon; The Libation Bearers; The Eumenides (Penguin Classics)
All of the Homeric Hymns begin and end with what?
The invocation of the Muses
When were the hymns composed?
Between 650 and 400 BCE
Who is Apollo?
Son of Leto and Zeus
God of Archery, the Lyre, and Prephecy
What are the two main things in the Hymn to Apollo?
Apollo's birth in Delos
The Oracle in Delphi
Why must Leto search for a place to give birth to Apollo?
Hera is angry that Zeus had been with Leto, People feared her
Why does Delos agree to be the brithplace of Apollo?
Leto makes an oath that Apollo will establish a temple there and not destroy them
Why does Delos fear the birth of Apollo?
Hera and they fear that he will not see Delos as a worthy place for his birth
Why do the other gods fear Apollo and what happens to make them stop being afraid?
They fear that he will overthrow Zeus
His mother, Leto, disarms him and sides with Zeus
Who is Typhaos?
The child that Hera produced in response to Zeus producing Athena
He is powerful enough to overthrow Zeus but not wise enough
Where is the Oracle established?
Who is Demeter?
Sister/wife of Zeus
Mother of Persephone
Goddess of Agriculture
Who is Persephone?
Daughter of Zeus and Demeter
What happens to Persephone?
Persephone is given to Hades as a bride as part of Zeus' will
Hades takes her with the permission of Zeus but not Demeter
Who are the witnesses for Demeter?
Hekate and Helios
What does Demeter first do when she cannot find Persephone?
Retracts from the gods, disguises herself and finds a surrogate child
Who is Demophoon?
The child that Demerter cares for
What does Demeter do to Demophoon?
She feeds him the food of the gods and every night puts him in the fire to burn away his mortality
Who is Metaneira?
The mother of Demophoon
What does Demeter do when Metaneira sees what Demeter is doing to Demophoon?
Demeter gets angry, claims humans do not know what is good for them
She reveals herself and demands a temple be built to appease her
What is the end result of the Hymn to Demeter?
The creation of the Eleusinian Mysteries
What does Demeter want throughout the Hymn?
To get her Daughter back
What does food does Persephone eat prior to leaving the Underworld?
What does Persephone's consumption of mortal food symbolize?
It can represent her Virgin blood, consummation of her marriage
It can represent her accepting mortality therefore she may not fully return from the Underworld
Persephone spends part of her year in the Underworld and part in the Upper World. What does this cause?
This causes the change in Demeter's mood. When Persephone is in the Upper World it is spring and crops do well, when she is in the Underworld Demeter is mourning and crops fail
What do the Eleusinian Mysteries tell us?
How to have a better afterlife
Who is Hermes?
Son of Zeus and Maia
God of Thieves
Leads the souls to the Underworld
Protector of Travelers and Merchants
How is Hermes depicted in the Hymn?
As a baby
Hermes craves to eat meat, what does this represent?
his closeness to mortals, he is more mortal-like than other gods
What is the difference between Apollo's sight and Hermes'?
Apollo sees Zeus' will, He sees what will be
Hermes sees potential
What does Hermes steal?
What tricks does Hermes use to perform his thievery?
Makes the Cattle walk backwards
How does Apollo discover that Hermes stole his cattle?
He sees a bird and knows it was Hermes
What does Hermes say to defend himself?
Says that he is just a baby
Has not calluses on his fee
What does the laughter of both Zeus and Apollo represent?
The acceptance of Hermes as a god
What does Hermes give to Apollo to replace his cattle?
What is the Hymn to Hermes about?
Trying to establish Hermes as one of the Gods
What is the Hymn to Aphrodite about?
Controlling her power
Who is not affected by Aphrodite?
Athena, Artemis, Hestia
What does Zeus do to force Aphrodite to teach her a lesson?
Makes her fall in love with a mortal
Who is Anchises?
Part of the Royal household of Troy
Mortal that Aphrodite falls in love withw
Why does Anchises first reject Aphrodite?
She has disguised herself but he thinks she is a goddess and knows that bad things come to mortals that sleep with the divine
What does Aphrodite do to make Anchises be with her?
she convinces him that she is mortal then uses her power to persuade him
What is the reaction of Anchises when Aphrodite reveals herself?
She says not to tell anyone and he will be safe
Who is Dionysus?
Son of Zeus and Semele
God of Wine
How is Dionysus usually represented?
As being a foreigner
Different from the cultural norms
Why is Dionysus a god despite the fact that his mother was mortal?
Semele asked Zeus to show his true self
Sight of him in all his power and glory kills her
Zeus' thigh becomes the womb for Dionysus
What happens to Dionysus in the Hymn?
He is kidnapped and no one recognizes him as a god
What does Dionysus do (in order) to reveal himself as a god?
The bonds will not hold
Scent of wine
Vines and plants curl around the ship
Turns himself into a lion
Makes a bear appear
What happens to the people who did not recognize Dionysus?
They jump the ship and turn to Dolphins as they hit the water
What is a main problem in all of the hymns?
The recognition and worship of the gods
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