In places where more snow falls in the winter than melts away in the summer
What is the snowline?
The elevation above which snow persists throughout the year.
What is the zone of wastage?
The part of a glacier where snow melting exceeds snow accumulation.
Under what conditions will the front of a glacier remain stationary?
Glacial fronts remain stationary when melting and snow accumulation are equal.
What is an end moraine?
A ridge of debris deposited at the end of a glacier.
How does an end moraine form?
Pieces of rock are transported to the front of a glacier as ice within the glacier moves.
Will plucking occur if a glacier is NOT advancing?
Yes, because glacial ice is still moving inside the glacier even if the glacier's front is not advancing.
True of False: Glacial activity can change the position of sea level relative to present conditions.
True or False: Glaciers are capable of over-steepening slopes.
True or False: Glaciers do not disrupt the hydrologic cycle.
True or False: Glaciers are incapable of moving large amounts of sediment.
Compared with the amount of ice that existed during the last glacial maximum how much exists today?
approximately 1/3 as much
During the last glacial maximum, the position of the sea level occurred at the elevation relative to its position today?
At the last glacial maximum, sea level was about 100 meter (~300 feet) lower than it is today.
If all the ice that currently exists on Earth were to melt in the next 300 - 400 years, which of the following cities would have the least difficulty?
You were working in the field area that you think at one time contained valley glaciers. What evidence would you look for to determine this?
rounded, U-shaped valleys
Rain Shadows & Deserts
How do pieces of rock move under the influence of wind?
rolling, sliding, bouncing, suspension
What property of a piece of material will most directly determine how it is carried by wind?
What is dust?
The particles carried in suspension by wind
What are cross beds?
Inclined layers in sediment or sedimentary rocks that reveal the direction of wave or wind transport.
What do cross beds represent?
The moving front of ripple or dune
What is the relationship between water currents and cross beds?
Cross beds sits at an angle of current direction.
Why do desert dunes migrate?
Wind erodes material on the back side of the dune and deposits it on the front side of the dune.
What do we call the tide that occurs when constructive interference between lunar and solar bulges produce a large tidal range?
What are tides?
The regular daily rises and falls in sea level caused by the gravitational attraction of the Moon and Sun on Earth.
What are high tides found simultaneously on opposite sides of Earth?
The tidal bulges occur on both sides of Earth that are aligned with the tide-generating body.
Why does the Moon generate larger tidal forces than the Sun?
Although the Sun is bigger, the Moon is much closer
What do we call the tide that occurs when destructive interference between lunar and solar bulges produces a small tidal range?
How many spring and neap tides will a tide-recording station experience in a given month?
2 spring tides and 2 neap tides
What provides most ocean waves with their energy?
How does water move as waves pass?
Water moves in a circle in the same direction as wave movement.
How does wave amplitude change with depth in water?
Wave amplitude decreases as depth increases.
What is the wave base?
The lower limit of wave-induced motion in the water
What is the relationship between wave base and wavelength?
The depth of the wave base is one-half the wavelength of the waves.
Why does wave height increase as waves enter shallower water?
The energy of the wave must be contained within a smaller water column in shallow water.
Why do ocean waves bend around headlands?
The wave are moving more slowly just in front of the headland, causing the waves to bend.
What is refraction?
The bending of waves due to a change in wave velocity.
How does wave refraction at headlands affect deposition and erosion?
Wave refraction at the headland increases erosion at the headland and causes deposition in adjacent bays.
In the long term, what do beach drift and longshore current do?
Move sediment parallel to the shoreline.
What is the longshore current?
Water forced by waves to move along the shore
Which way would sediment move if NO beach drift existed?
At an angle to shore
Stabilizing the Shore
The relationship between ocean temperature and density
The vertical structure of the atmosphere
True or False: The tilt of Earth and the latitude of a city affect the degree and amount of direct sunlight that location receives at the winter solstice.
True or False: The circumference of the Earth at the equator is 24,900 miles. Based on this, a person at the equator is rotating 1040 miles per hour.
Controls of Temperature:
Land and water—land heats and cools more rapidly than water
Altitude—Proximity to land = heats atmosphere
Cloud cover—reduce solar radiation during day and absorbs during the night
Albedo—The fraction of total radiation reflected by a surface.
True or False: A higher albedo would result in hotter temperatures on Earth
False - result in cooler temperatures
Characteristics of Earth's relationship to the Sun
Earth's axis is titled relative to its orbital plane
Earth's axis always points in the same direction relative to the stars
Earth's orbits around the Sun, completing one orbit each year
Earth spins on its axis, completing one rotation each day
What is the June Solstice?
The time of the year when Earth's geographic North Pole is leaning most directly toward the Sun.
How does the inclination of Earth's axis change over the course of the year?
The inclination of Earth's axis odes not change
What is the December solstice?
The time of the year when Earth's geographic North Pole is leaning most directly away from the Sun.
When are the Sun's rays perpendicular to Earth's surface at the equator?
September and March Equionox
What does the length of day remain the same throughout the year?
At the equator
When do all locations on Earth experience equal lengths of day and night?
March and September Equionox
Climate: Humid Tropical
Wet climates – Closest to the equator and experience a lot of precipitation, but very little temperature variation (they are always hot).
Tropical wet and dry climates – Similar temperature range to wet tropical climates, but have distinct wet and dry seasons. Movement of low-pressure centers means that these climates often have wet, rainy summers and falls, but are dry during other parts of the year.
Arid/desert – Very dry climates with little precipitation.
Semiarid/steppe – Climates surrounding the arid/desert regions; a transition zone between the deserts and the humid regions around them.
Climate: Humid Middle-Latitude (mild winter)
Humid subtropical climate – Located on the southeastern side of continents and have hot, humid, rainy summers and mild, cool winters.
Marine west coast climate – They are rainy, cool in the summer, and mild in the winter.
Dry-summer subtropical climate – Characterized by dry summers, and winters with relatively more precipitation.
Climate: Humid Middle-Latitude (Severe Winter)
Humid continental climate – Have hot summers and severe winters. They have somewhat more precipitation in the summer than in the winter.
Subarctic climate – Long, very cold winters and short, but relatively warm summers. These climates have the largest temperature variations.
Tundra climate – Have large variation in annual temperatures. Their winters are very cold and their summers are cool. These climates are devoid of trees.
Ice cap climate – No month has an average temperature above 0°C (32°F), so the ground is perpetually covered in ice and snow.
Atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased by more than ____ over the past 50 years.
In general, which two factors determine the overall temperature of Earth's atmosphere?
Radiation coming into and radiation going out of Earth's atmosphere
In general, what is the difference between the energy that comes into Earth from the Sun and the energy that Earth emits back to space?
Which three gases are most important on Earth for inhibiting the release of longwave radiation back into space?
wave vapor, carbon dioxide, methane
What is global warming?
The warming of Earth's atmosphere caused by the production of greenhouse gases during human activity.
True or False: Water Vapor and Oxygen where part of Earth's original atmosphere.
The first primitive organism to inhabit Earth came in existence roughly ___ years ago.
The most common Precambrian fossils are ____, layered mounds of calcium carbonate.
The world's largest, commercially developed tar sand deposit is _____.
near Lake Athabasca in central Canada
Roughly half of the world supply of oil shale is located within the Green River Formation in _______.
Colorado, Utah, and Whyoming
The United States, with about 6% of the world's population, uses about _____ of the world's total, annual, energy production.
____ Accounts for the majority of the coal burned annually in the United States.
Generation of electricity
Of the following fossil fuels, ____ is most likely to have the lowest sulfur content and the smallest volume of solid ash residue.
By how much would solar have to grow to match the current level of hydroelectric power?
about 60 times
As hot, ionic-rich fluids move through limestone, a few minerals are produced, including this metamorphic mineral.
Placers are deposits formed when _____
currents mechanically concentrate heavy minerals.
What nonmetallic mineral is used to help keep streets and highways free of ice?
True or False: Some gold and silver deposits were formed by hydrothermal solutions circulating through open space along fractures in rock.
____ meterorites are that to be analogous in composition to Earth's core.
Jupiter and other gas giants formed in regions of _____
low temperatures far from the Sun from a high percentage of ices as well as rocky and metallic debris.
A planet's crust is generally formed by ___
melting of the mantle. This causes a chemical segregation of elements and makes the crust distinct from the majority of the planet.
A rock that enters the atmosphere and survives to reach the ground is called _____. Before landing, this rock is called a _____
Where do asteroids primarily originate?
Between Mars and Jupiter
Venus's atmosphere altitude, troposphere altitude, surface pressure, and surface temperature is ____ than Earth's.
Earth vs. Venus
Earth: Water vapor cloud layer; oxygen present as a primary component