How are we influenced by patterns of reward? ? delay of reinforcement greatly reduces its effectiveness, but long chains of responses may be built up so that a single reinforcer maintains many responses. ? Superstitious behaviors often become part of response chains because they appear to be associated with reinforcement?. ? Reward or reinforcement may be given continuously (after every response) or on a schedule of partial reinforcement. Partial reinforcement produces greater resistance to extinction. ? The four most basic schedules of reinforcement are fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, and variable interval. Each produces a distinct pattern of responding. ? Stimuli that precede a reinforced response tend to control the response on future occasions (stimulus control). Two aspects of stimulus control are generalization and discrimination. ? In generalization an operant response tends to occur when stimuli similar to those preceding reinforcement are present. ? In discrimination, responses are given in the presence of discriminative stimuli associated with reinforcement (S+) and withheld in the presence of stimuli associated with nonreinforcement (S-) What does punishment do to behavior? ? Punishment decreases responding. Punishment occurs when a response is followed by the onset of an aversive event or by the removal of a positive event (response cost) ? Punishment is most effective when it is immediate, consistent and intense. Mild punishment tends to only temporarily suppress responses that are also reinforced or were acquired by reinforcement. ? The undesirable side effects of punishment include the conditioning of fear to punishing agents and situations associated with punishment, the learning of escape and avoidance responses, and the encouragement of aggression. What is cognitive learning? ? Cognitive learning involves higher mental processes. such as understanding, knowing, or anticipating. Even in relatively simple learning situations, animals and people seem to form cognitive maps (internal representations or relationships). ? In latent learning, learning remains hidden or unseen until a reward or incentive for performance is offered. ? Discovery learning emphasizes insight and understanding, in contrast to rote learning. Does learning occur by imitation? ? Much human learning is achieved through observation, or modeling. Observational learning is influenced by the personal characteristics of the model and the success or failure of the model?s behavior. Studies have shown that aggression is readily learned and released by modeling. ? Television characters can act as powerful models for observational learning. Televised violence increases the likelihood of aggression by viewers. How does conditioning apply to practical problems? ? Operant principles can be readily applied to manage behavior in everyday settings. When managing one?s own behavior, self-reinforcement, self-recording, feedback, and behavioral contracting are all helpful. ? Four strategies that can help change bad habits are reinforcing alternate responses, promoting extinction, breaking response chains, and avoiding antecedent cues. ? In school, self-regulated learners typically do all of the following: They set learning goals, plan learning strategies, use self-instruction, monitor their progress, evaluate themselves, reinforce successes, and take corrective action when required. How does biology influence learning? ? Many animals are born with innate behavior patterns far more complex than reflexes. These are organized into fixed action patterns (FAPs), which are stereotyped, species-specific behaviors. ? Learning in animals is limited at times by various biological constraints and species-typical behaviors. ? According to prepared fear theory, some stimuli are especially effective conditioned stimuli. Many responses are subject to instinctive drift in operant conditioning. Human learning is subtly influenced by many such biological potentials and limits PSYCHOLOGY ON THE NET ? Memory A short tutorial on classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and cognitive learning. http://www.science.wayne.edu/~wpoff/memory.html. ? Observational Learning- Presents Bandura?s original work on modeling, with graphs. http://www.valdosta.peachnet.edu/~whuitt/psy702/behsys/social.html ? Oppatoons ? Cartoons of rats undergoing conditioning. http://www.thecroft.com/psy/toons/OppaToons.html
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