Most behavioural research addresses cognitive biases..what are they?
But what is equally as important and less studied?
- Tversky and Kahneman’s
- Large number of biases in human judgement and decision making
- deviation from a normative rule of probability or utility theory.
- Vaughan’s (1936): ‘’Consciously, a bias is a point of view; behavioristically, it is a posture, a set, a preparedness for acting, thinking, or judging’’
- faulty mental processes that lead judgments and decisions to violate commonly accepted normative principles.
- motivational biases, which include conscious or subconscious distortions of judgments an decisions because of self-interest, social pressures, or organizational context
Thomas schelling (1984) was concerned with?
Observed that when people use self-command to prevent their future selves from acting waywardly.. what about short-term and long-term goals?
- Ancient problem of interpersonal conflicts and the tactics used to resolve them.
- they effectively divide themselves into two selves with conflicting desires for the same point
''want to do'' and ''ought to do''.
- ''OTD'' is usually associated with long term goals such as market share and "WTD" associated with short-term goals such immediate profit.
- Example; tax avoidance scandals, where the goal of achieving high financial gains in the short term can conflict with the long-term goal of maintaining the reputation of the company (e.g. Starbucks).
Who accepts the concept of STG and LTG? what phenomenon operation do they suggest? what is a defining factor of them? It is as if we have one resolution from.. what often happens with the s1 transient state?
- ‘‘Visceral Factors,’’ which include impulsive decision, not a rational one; and it is provoked by drive states such as hunger, thirst and sexual desire,
- a direct hedonic impact (which is usually negative), and second, an effect on the desirability of different goods and actions.
- a system 1 analysis (simple signalling from motivational and emotional states) and another from a system 2 analysis (analytical thinking based on identifying and analysing long term goals).
- override actions that are in our longer term interests this can occur because we don’t have clear longer term goals, because our goals are much less strong, or because we cannot keep them in focus
The ‘want self’ signals things that are... particularly in what situations? thus can act as a ?
However, most models of effective managerial decision making (usually based on decision theory) focus on the ___ self...
Bazerman and moore 2013 suggested what to resolve this?
- important to us that the 'ought' self often suppresses.
- dynamic ones where people need to act quickly,
- Signalling, prioritising, energising function, often a gut reaction (S1) which should be listened to
- However, most models of effective managerial decision making (usually based on decision theory) focus on the ‘ought self’ and in doing so may be incomplete and fail to take account of a key component of human decision making
- to assume a negotiation between the two selves and indicates that we should only proceed once a ‘settlement’ between the two has been achieved.
Who claims that will power can help overcome these transient s1 states?
What did he find? What was the study? why?
- Good intentions can be implemented effectively has been analysed in recent research on goal striving.
- Study involving law students, found writing down plans and explanations of how they would complete the task can also work
-because it takes away some of the mental effort therefore leaving more for self-control