How Managers Make Decisions; Naturalistic Decision Theory
Naturalistic decision making
How managers make decisions
There is a large body of literature in existence characterised by the explicitly label “decision theory” what is it? Most of its literature environment is... In recent years there has been a new approach that challenges this orthodoxy NDM, its distinguished by? NMD has adopted a generally confrontational position against the more...
- It is a normative theory with descriptive and prescriptive approaches such as Prospect theory. - often constructed for experimental results; to test a normative decision, investigator sets various tasks for subjects to perform in tightly controlled setting. - ¬ research in naturalistic settings, a preference for the qualitative rather than quantitative, a renewed emphasis on the value of expertise and experience, and concern for the more “complicated” decision tasks. - positivistic, quantitative and traditional decision approaches, rejecting highly controlled lab experiments involving artificially contrived tasks and ‘naïve’ participants.
Orasanu & Connolly (1993) investigated into NDM by using... Real life’ decision situations do not involve..
In the field decision makers bring ____ and ____ and it’s the application of this rather than the...
¬ Also, DMs tend to consider just one ___ and the ____ ___ of the dm task,
- cognitive ethnographic methods to distinguish how the DT approach fails to describe how experts claim to make decisions in the real world.
- surveying a known fixed set of alternatives like firefighting, weighing the likely consequences of each and choosing the best based on a set of purposes.
- expertise and experience, DT description.
- one alternative rather than many, critical features of the decision task (e.g. dynamic, ill-structured, time pressured)
who suggests that people use prior knowledge to build a body of experience? What study did they conduct?
In all cases experts have the knowledge to categorise? this is because the problem becomes one of ____?
Experts bring much more knowledge and therefore greater opportunity for...
- Lurigio and carroll (1985)
- Study of probation officers found that probation officers who had more frequent contact and experience with gang members also had more detailed and organized knowledge and schemas about them than novice probation officers.
- problems and have appropriate actions attached to each of these categories.
- recognition - once recognised then the action is automatic.
- recognition and use of perception-action links (what we call experience).
Orasanu & Connolly (1993); identified what? examples? but DT does not?
What does RPD stand for and who theory was it?
- Eight characteristics of decisions in naturalistic situations that are important but neglected by the DT approach
- Organisational goals/norms: values/goals not simply those of individual, High stakes and time pressure
- Recognise any of these 8 as issues
- Recognition-primed decision model Klein (1993)
- How people use their experience in the form of a repertoire of patterns.
The theory was developed in the context of the issues raised by ____ and at the heart of theory is the notion that....
Therefore, the RPD model is a blend of...
pattern matching is the? mental stimulation is the?
what does this blend correspond to?
-Orasanu & Connolly, decision makers use their knowledge & experience to consider one option.
- intuition and analysis
- . the intuitive part, and the mental he conscious, deliberate, and analytical part.
¬ System1 (fast and unconscious)/System 2 (slow and deliberate) account of cognition