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These 3 men can be credited with inventing the refrigerated railcar and using all parts of the beast
Armor, Swift & Morris
This man perfected the still motion camera
James J. Hill
Ran Great Northern Railroad that ran from Duluth to Seattle & had line from Minneapolis to Chicago
Characteristics of Industrial Revolution (6)
1:Production by machine, not hand
3:Growth of transportation
4:Increased capital accumulation for investment in expansion of production(take $ to make $)
5:Babies(If you had $ you could have kids)
Captains of Industry were...
Men that figured out how to make Americans' lives better in areas of transportation, communication and every day living. Their ideas made them multimillionaires & changed how Americans did things, for the better.
Invented a way to force cold air through molten iron to remove imperfections
Drilled the 1st successful oil well, in Pennsylvania
Top inventor of the day, made life better for people with a number of inventions like:the lightbulb, phonograph, and motion picture camera.
Became the "Steel King". 1st millionaire in the US. Was a philanthropist-built a library
What is a philanthropist?
Someone who gives money away to help people/society
John D. Rockefeller
Started standard oil
Made his money in the railroad industry. Ran the NY Central rail line from New York to Chicago.
J. P. Morgan
Made his money in banking and bought Carnegie Steel and renamed it US Steel
Made their money in making dynamite, chemicals, dyes, synthetic fibers and plastics
Perfected the still camera
Produced the Model T & Model A cars. Perfected the assembly line, mass production and standardization of parts.
Oliver and Wilber Wright
Invented and flew first Airplane at Kitty Hawk NC in 1903
Put down the 1st prematurely successful transatlantic cable in 1866 connecting America and Europe.
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telephone
invented the wireless telegraph
Because of economic disorder and the urge for profits, consolidation swept the US. Huge companies began to dominate the America economy
Cooperative agreement among firms that make the same product or offer the same service. They control the market by agreeing how much each should produce and how much to charge. Depends on honesty of members of pool. They were made illegal in 1887.
What main companies used Pool as their chosen method of consolidation?
Railroad Industry, steel producers and whiskey distillers
What made pools illegal in 1887?
Interstate Commerce Act
Companies turn over stock to a board of directors which supervise all operations
Controlled a partial or complete interest in other companies
Company takes control over several levels of production and distribution including raw materials and transportation and manufacturing.
Which company used Vertical Integration/Organization as their method of consolidation?
Meat packing industry
Interstate Commerce Act
Made pools illegal by regulating the railroad industry
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
Put in charge of airways since they are public. Part of the acts that helped people.
Acts that helped people
Laws and agencies put together to help stop abuse to the consumer
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Encourages free competition by prohibiting unreasonable restraints of trade . This broke up Trusts. Part of acts that helped people.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
Created to make sure no person had an unfair advantage in the stock market, keeping all trade fair.
Meat Inspection Act
Put together to make sure that meat consumed was fit to eat. Part of acts that helped people.
Pure Food and Drug Act
Made sure all drugs, foods, and cosmetics that people used were safe to use. Part of acts that helped people.
Standardization of parts, assembly line, labor saving machines, division of labor.
Specialty shops, chain stores, department stores, selling via internet, super markets, shopping centers, credit sales
Machines and assembly lines reproduced the need for what?
During the Industrial Revolution more of who were hired?
Women & children
What were the average wages for 7 hours of work for men and women?
$1.56 - women
$7-9 - men
Which Industry had the most dangerous working conditions?
Between 1900 and 1917 how many workers were killed and injured in the railroad industry?
2 million injured
Between 1900 and 1917 how many people were killed and injured in railroad repair shops?
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
1911-Owner of factory was sick of workers taking cigarette breaks, so he locked them in. A fire was started accidentally. Panic erupted, many women jumped to their death & over 150 people were burned to death.
How did labor fight back?
Strikes and labor unions
When workers decided that they would not work until their demands were met. Usually demanded: more money, better working conditions & benefits
Workers get together as a group to demand better wages, better working conditions and benefits. They then have a group representing the workers negotiate with management.
Homestead Railroad Strike
Most famous strike during Industrial Revolution. Carnegie demanded workers go back to work, they said no. Government sent in soldiers who killed some of the strikers.
What told strikers that the government was on the side of the management and not the workers?
The Homestead Railroad Strike
Knights of Labor Union
Famous union- wanted the 8 hour work day and better pay for workers
American Federation of Labor
Put a number of different unions together and in solidarity would go on strike if 1 part of the Union did not get what it wanted. Started by Samuel Gompers.
When was Teddy Roosevelt born?
October 27, 1858
When did Teddy Roosevelt die?
January 6, 1919
Teddy Roosevelt's contributions as Pres. of US?
26th president, promoted major domestic reforms, larger role for the US in world affairs, added power to presidency.
Born into wealthy family, homeschooled, traveled to Middle East & Europe, had athsma, poor eyesight. Worked hard to compensate for his physical weakness, loved outdoors and rough play.
Homeschooled, Harvard, Columbia Law School. Didn't like it, met his wife there.
Why didn't TR like school?
It wasn't stimulating enough for him
Who was TR's wife?
At what age did Teddy Roosevelt become a member of the NY Legislature?
What happened to Teddy Roosevelt on February 14th, 1884?
Both his mother and wife died.
Alice from complications of childbirth
Mother from old age
What did TR do after the death of his wife & mother?
Headed West to Medora. Became a cattle rancher for 2 years with no success, heads back to NY.
After his return to NY in 1886 what are some of TR's jobs?
US Civil Service Commission, New York City Bd of Police Commissioners, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, got involved in the Spanish-American war as member of Rough Riders & famous charge up San Juan Hill
Who was Edith Crow?
TR's old childhood friend whom he married (2nd wife)
What year did TR become Governer of NY?
To shut TR up what did the captains of industry offer him?
Vice presidency, with William McKinley
What happened to William McKinley?
He was assassinated while giving a speech in Buffalo NY
What happens after William McKinkey is assassinated?
TR becomes president
TR believed that government should represent everyone equally
TR broke up monopolies
TR pushed America to new horizons, trustbusting, square deal, wanted big business to accept regulation & wanted big business and unions under control of the government
TR's Reform- gave ICC regulatory power over railroads
TR's Reforms as Pres.
Hepburn Act, Pure Food and Drug Act, Panama Canal, Conservation. of Natural Resources
What did TR do to conserve national resources?
Doubled the number of national parks & tripled acreage of national forests
What was TR's foreign policy?
Walking softly and carrying a big stick?
Made the US the protectorate of all Latin America
why did TR win the Nobel Peace Prize?
For negotiating the peace treaty between Japan and Russians
What does TR decide in 1908?
Not to run for presidency again.
Who becomes president after TR?
William Howard Taft
What does William Howard Taft do to TR's reforms?
He ruins them.
Who won the 1912 election?
Democrat Woodrow Wilson
How did TR die?
He got a terrible infection while on a voyage in the Amazon, due to complications from infection and his son's death he'd give up and die
How old was TR when he died?
Factors leading to WW1
Nationalism, imperialism, militarism, alliance system
Strong feelings of belonging among a group of people bound by ties or a common culture, history and problems
the desire to unite all people of a nation under a single government
glorification of armed strength, problems solved by force
WW1 Alliance system
Unification of countries with the same ideology
What was "the spark" of WW1?
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria visiting Serbia. June 28, 1914
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
GB, France, Japan, Russia, US
Von Schieffen plan
Germany's plan for WW1. Didn't want to fight a 2 front war. Attack Belgium, Into France, Attack Russia
What did the US do at the beginning of WW1?
Stayed out of it
Problems with the US's neutrality
1. Ethnic groups in US took sides
2. Economic links with allies
3. Democratic ties to allies
What kind of war was WW1?
New technology/weapons of WW1
Poison gas, tanks, airplanes/zepplins, flame throwers, machine guns, subs, artillery could shoot from 10 miles away
At Battles of Verdun & Somme how many casualties did Germans plan to inflict?
5 to every 2 German casualties
What did the Germans do to US to get them involved?
Attacked with torpedoes, sunk Lustiania off coast of Ireland
How many people were killed when Germans sunk the Lustania?
During WW1 Russians went through what revolution?
Communist, USSR emerged
How did the US get involved in W W1?
GB intercepted Zimmerman notes which said if Mexico invaded invaded US and Germans won WW1, it would get land back
When did US enter WW1?
April 2, 1917 on side of Triple Entente
How many signed up when US joined WW1?
US at home during Ww1
1. Business & Gov cooperate
2. Inflation & higher taxes
3. Labor unions get along with owners
4. Women join labor force
5. AA migrate to North
6. Race riots
John J. pershing
head of American troops in WW1
Woodrow Wilson's 14 pts for post war peace blueprint?
Freedom of seas, reduction of arms, end of secret treaties, Poland and independent country, Independence & self determination for A-H empire, Europe & Arab parts of Ottoman empire, league of nations
Finals Days of WW1
Germans were stopped at Chateau-Thierry, Armistice was signed on Veterans day
When was Armistice signed?
11th day of 11th month on 11th hr 1918, veterans day today
Treaty of Versailles
Jan 1919. 27 nations met in Paris. Woodrow Wilson got most of what he wanted, map redrawn, treaty was about revenge
What things in the treaty of Versailles would help cause WW2?
Germany lost 10% of land, league of Nations being formed, Baltic states, losers had to repay winners
What were the Baltic States in Treaty of Versailles?
Estonia, Latvia, Lithonia, Poland, Chezolvakia, Yugoslavia, Austria and Hungary
While WW1 was happening what disease broke out?
Spanish Flu, started at Fort Riley, Kansas
How many did the Spanish flu kill?
50 million, only 2/3 of who got it
Women rose up in 20s how?
Flappers, aggressively pursued men, smoked and drank
1920s- conservative men and women pushed for alcohol to be banned. Led to passing of amendment to constitution that prohibited alcohol
When was prohibition repealed?
Too jazz musician
Most famous gangster
Famous for flying across Atlantic Ocean nonstop
1st talking movie
The Jazz Singer
Movie stars of 1920s
Rudy Valentino, Douglas Fairbanks Sr., Mary Pickford
Most famous dance club in 1920s
When did the stock market crash?
October 29, 192
What was the stock market crash the start of?
The great depression
3 Causes of great depression
1. Overproduction of goods
2. Bank Failures
3. Domino effect
Effects of GD (3)
1. Depression became worldwide
3. Families suffered
What was Hoovers response to the depression?
To set up programs to help US out of it
Public Works Program, Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Who won the 1932 election?
Facts about FDR
Gov. of NY, had polio, womanizer, wife Eleanor
The Brain Trust
FDRs plan for GD, group of intellectuals to suggest ideas to get out of it
What did FDR do to banks?
Closed them all and Emergency Banking Relief Act allowed government to decide which could reopen
FDTs radio broadcasts to tell everyone was bad but relief was on the way
3 Rs of FDRs New Deal/Alphabet Soup
1. Relief for unemployed
1933 how many ppl were unemployed?
Civilian Conservation Corporation-Provided jobs & helped conserve natural resources, men paid $30 a month and sent $25 home
Federal Emergency Relief Administration- Leave $ to state & local agencies and let them dice how to spend it
Works Progress Administration- employed men and women to build hospitals, schools, playgrounds and airports.
Tennessee Valley Authority- set up to remake Tennessee River Valley with dams and electricity along river
Agriculture Adjustment Act-paid farmers to not grow certain crops
Rural Electrification Administration- loaned $ to extend electrical lines to rural areas
National Industrial Recovery Act- set up rules for production, wages, prices & working conditions
Public Works Administration- built 34,000 projects like dams, airports & schools
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation- insured bank accounts up to 100,000
Problems with new Deal/Alphabet soup
Supreme court struck it down so FDR threatened to court pack so they had to pass it
protected workers from unfair management practices
union representing a group of workers negotiates with management for contract
Social Security Act
pension for elderly, still around
When did the Great depression end?
When the US entered WW2
When did Hitler take office?
Who took over Italy while Hitler took over Germany?
Form of government in which a dictator and supporters cooperate to seek more power for their nation
Ruler controls all aspects of life of the people. Happened in Germany an Italy during WW2
Events leading to WW2
Italy invades Ethiopia, Japan invades the rest of China, Hitler takes over Austria, Spanish civil war (Italy takes it over)
Policy that was giving the aggressor what they wanted in order to avoid war
In 1939 what did France & GB pledge to do?
Declare war if Germany invaded Poland
Germany & USSR sign what?
WW2 starts on what date?
Sept 1 1939
Lightning war. Bomb bomb bomb then send in troops to finish off the rest
What battle were the British saved to fight another day by evacuating 300,000 troops?
Battle of Dunkirk
What was US policy during WW2?
Give aids to Democrats, lend-lease
Battle of Britain
Day & night bombing of GB by Germany
June 1914 what did Germans do?
Broke nonagression pact and attacked USSR
What new leader did Japan gain during WW2?
December 7, 1941
Japan attacks US at Pearl Harbor. 2,400 killed, 8 battleships sunk, 188 planes destroyed
Where was Pearl Harbor located?
At start and end of WW2 how many soldiers were fighting?
1.5 million and 15 million
Total cost of WW2
US's national debt after WW2
Bataan Death March
10,000 US soldiers forced to walk to POW camps. 1,000 died. 5,000 died in camps.
Battle of Coral Sea
Tide changed. First battle where ships were close enough to see each other US won & halted Japanese advances
Executive Order 9066
Allowed government to put Japanese Americans in internment camps
Battle of el Alamien
US started to attack North Africa, Germany attacked us, US won
June 6, 1944
Battle of the Bulge
Germany made one last push to get US & GB forces back but failed. Allies won
J Robert Oppenheimer
Put in charge of science of creating atomic bomb
Aug 6, 1945
US drops bomb on Hiroshima
Aug 9, 1945
2nd bomb dropped on Nagasaki
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