1. In what ways does the phrase this side of paradise, from the title of a F. Scott Fitzgerald novel, reflects the social and cultural changes that took place in the US during the 1920s? Harlem Renaissance Expression for blacks Movement in New York that thought that black was beautiful A spiritual coming of age Famous people( Ma Ramsey, Bessie Smith, Billie Holiday, Duke Ellington Authors like Fitzgerald, Hemmingway and Gertrude were part of the ?lost generation? who wrote about American society- the best and worse?glad that the war was over but really mad about all the devastation that it caused Jazz Age Long party complete with flappers, speakeasies, and illegal bathtub gin? Hollywood ?The jazz singer,? ?the big parade? All based on society and culture More Americans went to movies than church ?This side of paradise? There was this side that was full of fun and dancing and shit, but there was also this fundamentalism and fear that was left from the first world war KKK ?Birth of a nation?( revived the KKK, especially in Ohio, Indiana and Oregon Couldn?t be in politics unless you were a Klansmen Tulsa Riot( KKK set city on fire, and thousands of people died They were scared of anyone that was different than them The Rising Tide of Color against White World Supremacy Stoddard?s book that outlined social Darwinism, only the fittest should survive, AKA the Americans Scope?s Trial Clash of American city life verses traditional values Palmer Raids Probably the most massive violation of civil liberties to date Arrested 200 immigrants and deported a bunch because the rich people were scared of anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti Italian anarchists that were fighting for workers rights They were arrested( tried( and put in the electric chair( symbol: thousands of workers around the world gathered around them 2. Analyze the economic causes of the Great Depression and evaluate FDR?s New Deal in terms of theory and practice. How effective was the New Deal? Did Americans support the New Deal? Why, or why not? During the 1920s the consumerism was huge( the prosperity of the 1920s was superficial There was a string of republican presidents that had a laissez- faire approach to business Credit was easily obtained, so people were buying more and more things that they couldn?t afford Unequal distribution of income Outstanding foreign debt Speculation( buying stocks on margin Cooperation consolidation Consumer debt FDR?s NEW DEAL Believed that it was time for big government (taking responsibility for society) Fundamental idea( NO HANDOUTS ?The only thing to fear is fear itself?? WPA( works progress association CCC( Civilian Conservation Corps NRA( National Relief Association The American people supported the New Deal, it was comprised of educated men 3. Analyze the extent to which Americas sought to maintain a position of neutrality in international relations throughout the 1930s. Why did so many Americans endorse this position? Ever since WWI, we Americans wanted to stay out of European wars. Americans wanted to remain completely neutral In 1940, when Italy and Germany joined forces 70% of Americans still didn?t want to go to war 1933- 1945- we were desperate, banks were closing America First Committee Charles Lindberg- said that we should not get involved in a war that we don?t think that we should win. National Organization Believed that America had enough problems itself to deal with Europe?s The Atlantic Charter had to be kept a secret After Pearl Harbor, Americans were so mad that they realized that neutrality was no longer an option. 4. Describe the effects of war mobilization in late 1941 and 1942-3 in terms of the effects of the draft and war-relocation. How did the war change American life? Gender roles? Race relations? Analyze the phrase The Best Years of Our Lives in terms of American sacrifice in World War II. Japanese Americans( had come to American in 1910-1930 and they generally lived on the West Coast, they had a difficult time in the military. After Pearl Harbor, thousands were arrested and put in concentration camps. FBI arrested ?community leaders? Women( 8 million women went into war industry, Rosie the Riviter, called the ?industrial army,? they were put on the regular assembly line. There were also some that went into the military Paying for War( you could buy victory bonds, we were almost at full employment, there were lots of taxes and they had to ration sugar, coffee, meat, gas and oil Blacks( some served in the army. They didn?t necessarily have a quota but they did have lots of limitations. The navy was the most integrated part. The Best Years of our Lives?( even though there was a war going on, people were happier. They had jobs and they were very involved in the war effort 5. Be familiar with the basic military strategies and tactics that the United States used in both the European and Pacific Theatres. Which specific strategies and use of technology led to an Allied victory? In Europe we had to deal with fascism (Mussolini and Hitler) Identify closely with state Government, industry, military become intertwined Appeal to nationalism and racists beliefs Raw terror Atlantic Charter( FDR and Churchill, they outline the ?Europe First? policy FDR?s Four Freedoms Speech( he says that we will back Europe, the four freedoms are religion, fear, want and speech Operation overload Pacific Theater( ?island Hopping? Go from island to island, bitter fighting, Americans were loosing all the way up to the Midway Islands battle, this was the turning point battle for Americans. (After Pearl Harbor, Americans were convinced that we had to fight, neutrality wasn?t an option anymore.) Iwo Jima( Feb 1945, crack Japs code. 6,000 US killed, 20,000 Japs, courage beyond the call of duty? that famous picture. On August 8, 1945 we dropped a hydrogen bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, which was a military center for the Japanese, and we dropped one of Nagasaki on August 9th. 6. In the immediate post-World War II period what issues did the US face domestically and internationally? What were the costs of the war in terms of loss of life? For the US? For Britain, France, Germany, and Russia? How did the war change the identity and power of the United States? Domestically American soldiers had a lot of psychological problems to deal with Especially after we dropped the bombs on Japan Once the war was over we were completely out of the Great Depression, our economy was back on track Gender in Postwar Rosie the Riviter went back to home life and not in the factories ?Leave it to beaver? family was the ideal Young couples with children, didn?t take the grandparents like they did before? ?The nucleus of American society is the family?? Believed that if women went to college that they would loose their productive sex age If they did go to college it was for the ?MRS? degree Women couldn?t get credit without the support of their fathers or husbands Buchenwald( was the first concentration camp that was liberated; we made German civilians walk through it for the shock affect. Internationally Yalta Conference( February 1945, last time all three powers met, United nations was formed, made Germany pay war reparations Potsdam( drew technical borders, first time that the US acknowledged that the Soviet was a legit government The war completely established the fact that America was the best! Everyone knew that if they wanted to win a war, they needed Americas help. 7. Analyze the origins of the Cold War. What actions did the Soviet Union take to initiate the Cold War? Did the United States play a role in the beginning of the Cold War? American didn?t even acknowledge the Soviet Union as legitimate until the Potsdam Conference America during the war and immediately after wanted the whole world to know how powerful they were, Kitchen Debate( Nixon and Krushev, to show the Soviets how we were not only militarily powerful but also that we were domestic and a strong nation. (the debate was actually held in an American kitchen) There was a new foreign order after the war- to turn against the Soviets. We supported and built up Japan and Germany after the war so they could help us defeat the Soviet Union The cold war was basically a battle of Communism vs. Capitalism Capitalism was clouded by words like ?democracy? The Soviets, US and China were all trying to get allies in Africa? Sputnik( satellite sent into space by the Soviets (1957), this changed American educational system, after this Eisenhower passes a National Defense Education Act( $1 billion dollars for science education in schools? racially segregated but not gender segregated, first time to have gender equality in schools Explorer( (1958) we sent it up, it was bigger and better. Peaceful side 8. Discuss America's strategy to contain communism through the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, and NSC-68. Why were these plans developed? What was the containment theory? Kennan?s Long Telegram( 1946, first lays out the containment policy, we needed to STOP communism Truman?s Doctrine( 1947, containment, support free people everywhere, supported any minority group that was being oppressed, contain communism to stop it from spreading to people that are easily susceptible. Marshall Plan( 1947, give aid to opposing countries, help Europe rebuild, contain communism, and in turn help American economy. NSC-68( 1950, containment wasn?t really enough, we needed to be prepared if something was going to happen, we build up our military. US and Soviet Union exist in polarized war. These plans were developed because we wanted to spread democracy (capitalism) and to stop the Soviets from spreading any farther. The containment theory was simply containing communism 9. Analyze the postwar domestic climate and the increased the fear of internal communist subversion. What were the short and long-term consequences of what is referred to as ?McCarthyism?? Joe McCarthy epitomized the trends in the 1950s American? fear of communism and anything different than themselves Joe McCarthy made a public speech saying that he had a list of people in Truman?s administration who were communist( accused Truman?s and his state department He had no proof of any communist activity, yet people went crazy and started to believe him and start accusing more people Army vs. McCarthy hearings McCarthy accused the US army of harboring communists Joe Welsch defended the army, saying, ?Have you no decency?? It was very similar to the first red scare in the 1920s Duck and Cover policy John Birch Society( strength in local societies to fight communism, if you don?t join this society than you are Quasi- military feeling Fear, different types of war, our identity is tied up in this war Alger Hiss State department worker, he was accused of being a communist by Whitaker Accused of espionage and working with KGB (Russian version of CSI) His trial was illegal( evidence produced/ charged but never convicted The Rosenbergs Nuclear scientists sold A-bombs to Soviet Union Communist youth Association Arrested in 1950( tried in 1951( killed under the Espionage Act (electric chair) HUAC( 1924, House of Un-American Activities Committee. They began calling people in and questioning their involvement with communism. Shows how even though lots of the accusations were true, Americans were still willing to believe them. They questioned Hollywood a lot because they recognized that Hollywood was extremely influential and if communist were to get inside Hollywood it would not be good Questioning Reagan (discussion group)( start off by asking him really broad questions and then gets into the questions about specific people, he never directly names anyone but he makes sure that everyone knows that he has no involvement. 10. Evaluate the multiple economic and cultural effects of postwar suburbanization and housing expansion in developments like the ?Levittown? communities in Pennsylvania and New York. GI Bill( offered to pay for soldier?s educations, designed primarily for WHITE MEN so it heightened the tensions between blacks and women. Rosie the Riviter( during the war she was working in the factories helping to support the army, after the war her job was moved back home. It was a very conscious strategy to keep them out of the workforce FHA( Federal Housing Association, gave soldiers housing loans Levittown developments( clearing potato fields on Long Island and build more houses. They were cheaply priced and a huge emphasis on safety. They were completely racially segregated. There were clauses in the contracts saying that they couldn?t sell to blacks. 11. Describe the approach that Eisenhower took to the Cold War and nuclear policy. What did he mean by ?Atoms for Peace?? By the ?atomic dilemma?? By the ?military-industrial complex?? Eisenhower?s state of the Union address( 1957, Atomic Energy Commission, 42 tests of Atomic weapons. Bikini Atoll( 23 tests (1946- 1958), most powerful bomb ever detonated by the US, vaporized 3 islands Atoms for Peace( said that we were making atomic to show to the world what we were capable of and to keep America safe. Military- industrial complex( creating jobs, intertwined 12. Analyze the Civil Rights Movement in terms of the role of the courts, leadership, ideology, and the concept of mass mobilization. Did the Civil Rights Movement succeed or fail? Why? What does Clifton Taulbert?s memoir reveal about what historians call ?the long Civil Rights Movement?? Its hard to pinpoint a place where the CRM started? the Civil Rights Movement was American to the core Courtroom( Brown vs. Board of Education( May 17, 1954. Plessy had made segregation legal and brown made it illegal. Linda Brown lived right next to a white school and she still had to walk far away to black school. Her parents took it to court and it was eventually successful Streets( Emmett Till and Mammie Till( young boy from Chicago and went to Money, Mississippi to visit cousins, some lady said that he had made a pass at her, and her husband and other men got him and beat him up and throw him in a river. Mammie wanted an open casket so the whole world would see. Rosa Parks and Montgomery Bus Boycott( December 1, 1955. She was a very strong political activist, it was a planned event, and she had gone to Highland Folk School. She refused to go to the back of the bus. Both the KKK and Martin Luther King thought that God was on their side Greensboro Sit-ins( greatly involved the students, peaceful demonstrations, they sat at the corners that were only for whites Birmingham 1963( known as the most segregated city in the country. Eugene ?Bull? Connor was the policeman that was known for being a bitch. Project confrontation. Voting( Freedom Summer( 1964, student?s black and white go into South (focused on Mississippi) and registered blacks to vote. (In Mississippi only 6.7% were registered) Leadership( MLK ?The Long Civil Rights Movement?( it was a very long process and it affected people at every level. Even once laws were revoked, blacks still felt the affects of segregation
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