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Said the firstmonotheistic or dualistic religion according to some scholars. It was apersonal religion with no place for rituals, priests or temples. The beliefmainly consisted of opposition of good and evil to learn and appreciategoodness, a Savior that would resurrect the dead, judgment and placement ofpeople in a heaven or hell afterward.Similar to Judaism,Islam, and Christianity: One God, opposing force (or devil), God rewards goodand punish evil, Savior, resurrection and life after death. Influence - moral living. Good and Evil
Valuessuch as truth, beauty, love, justice, and faith
That there was lifeafter death. They believed in Resurrection.
It alters nothing for we cannot rewrite history.
Accordingto The Culture-Epoch Theory, a culture is founded upon whatever conception ofreality is held by the great majority of its people over a considerable periodof time. The three major steps of the cycle it describes are Periods of Chaos,Periods of Adjustment, and Periods of Balance.
“TheAllegory of the Cave” describes our study of humanities in many ways. Theuneducated student, pertaining to the ideas of the past, may be closed mindedperceiving that reality is just what they are witnessing. They perceive theeffects of reality as reality. Studying humanities is the curious personturning around to see what is exactly causing these effects, that they may knowthe order of things and why. Preparing him for what is to come. But studyinghumanities must come one step at a time to make connections and tie themtogether in order to understand for there is so much that one cannot bare itall at one time.
The Assyrian Empire:
The Neo-BabylonianEmpire: Belshazzar
The Persian Empire: Cyrus the Great
It was most important,it is what helped keep them so stable for so long. The Nile was so predictablethat they worked with the floods very accurately to sustain crops. Nutrientswere very rich in the water and gave their crops the perfect soil. They neverhad to leave their perfectly geographically protected location.
That men and women wereequal. That life was about peace and equality, life went in cycles of life.
War: Minoans hated war,they were about peace/ Mycenaeans – very warlike
The Gods: Minoans-onewoman goddess/Mycenaeans- polytheistic (greek mythology)
Women: Minoans- in the Minoan culture, the women are justas engaged as the men, which again, suggests that women played a large role insociety .had a queen, women andmen equal with praise to the symbolism of female body/ Mycenaeans – had a king
The arts: Min- nature,peaceful, joyous murals and sculptures wall paintings, seals, stone-carvings, and sculptures. / Myc - Art was poems, hammering metals intorock, citadels.
A German archaeologistwho discovered the city of Troy from Homer’s books. He believed the stories tobe based off of true events. He later located what he thought was the palace ofAgamemnon at Mycenae and uncovered a wealth of treasures in and aroundMycenae.
His cleverness, tricky, sneakiness, his ability to outsmart and trick others to benefit himself.
Odysseus went in to thecave because of his overabundant curiosity, which usually gets the best of himon his adventures. They had been driven by storm to an island near the land ofthe Cyclopes. He wanted to see if they were uncivilizedsavages, or a hospitable and humane race. That perhaps theywould give them presents.
Because Cyclops wouldnot spare their lives out of any regard for Jove, unless he wasin the humor for doing so. Cyclops’ do not fear their God’s for “they are muchstronger than they.” He kept them to eat them.
Odysseus already jeeredat the Cyclops as they were trying to set sail telling him that he should’veknown that he would be punished by Jove and the other God’s for the sin ofeating the visitors of his home. The Cyclops got mad and threw the top of themountain at them and the waves drew them back to shore. Odysseus then jeered atthe Cyclops again by telling him 'Cyclops, if anyone asks you who it was that put your eye out andspoiled your beauty, say it was the valiant warrior Ulysses,son of Laertes, who lives in Ithaca.' (not Noman)
"ThenI said, 'I wish I could be as sure of killing you outright andsending you down to the house of Hades, as I am that it will take more than Neptune to cure that eye of yours.'
TheGreek Character is tough and mighty, fearless, and likes to be clever infighting with their words.This last saying doessymbolize the Greek’s answer to the terrible question by the fact that he istalking about their belief in Hell (Hades). That Gods control everything,punish the bad and reward the good.
Homer and Herodotos.
There was no permanentpriesthood or priestly class.No humans. They believed in the Olympian Gods. Nobook or prophet. The religion used mythical Gods and goddesses to explainnatural forces. Created gods in their own image.
Colonization exporting bands ofadventurers to found Greek colonies throughout the Mediteranian. The expansionled to increasing trade among all Hellenic cities and a swelling flow of wealthto mother cities. Large surplus of goods created by Greek artisians, andproducing far more goods than they needed led to the Greeks enlarging theireconomy.Trade, commerce, manufacturing.
Athenian intellectuals were fascinated with the world of ideas but average citizens were far more interested in the tangible world and their place within it. For development of the human spirit in a free society Athenians looked to theatre.
Reality was the individual. The individual was paramount in Greece because personal achievements were the measure of all things.
He was an influentialpre-Socratic philosopher and pupil of Leucippus, who formulated an atomictheory for the universe
Athenan Leucippus andhis student democritos stated that all matter consists of minute particlescalled atoma. These atoms exist in space, that combine and separate asnecessary, and represent a strict conservation of matter and energy; the same number of atoms always exist only thecombinations differ (Greek atomic theory).
It is used to describesomething austere, rigorous, disciplined. Spartans were trained to be soldiersfrom the time of birth.
2nd class citizens. Participated on the periphery. Athenians thought women were inferior.Aristotle wrote: "One rules, the other is ruled. Women couldn't participate in government, play sports, be in drama festivals, and got no formal education.
By serving the state tothe best of their nobility and having freedom and encouragement to excel andaccomplish things in return.
“A man served his statebest by being himself in the full range of his nobility; and not by sacrificingit to some abstract notion of political power or expediency.”
Funerals after suchbattles were public rituals and Pericles used the occasion to make a classicstatement of the value of democracy.
It was first recorded atthe public funeral of some Athenian young men who had been killed in thePeloponnesian war.
The Funeral Oration was recorded by Thucydides in book two of his History of thePeloponnesian War.
Further questions if ademocracy can function efficiently and effectively.
The purpose of the funeral orationwas not only to respect the departed but also to reward the citizen's nationalpride.
-Draco:first Greek code of laws. Draconian Laws
-Solon: separates and distributes the power of each group, court systems, Council of 400. Convinced everyone to make it run for 10 years.
-Pisistratos: aristocrats are not above the law, should be servants of the state. Aristocrats serve the state as a tradition, an instrument of the law. Kept balance of power.
-Cleisthenes: Created a council to rule. (Senate or Congress)Council of 500. Divided geographically. Rule by the neighborhoods. "representative government"
Aristotle- was the first to demonstrate that the earth was spherical.
Eratoshenes- was the first person on record to use the word geography. Also accepted that earth was spherical and calculated its circumference within a 0.5% accuracy.
Strabo- another famous geographer
Herdotus- drew a map on a flat surface, father of history.
Ptolemy- wrote and 8 volume guide to geography, also drew his own map which was held true for almost 1500 years. Depicted earth as flat.
father = Mars, cast down river to drown, rescued by she-wolf and raised by shepherd, Romulus kills Remus and creates Rome. Aeneas fled from Troy when greeks destroyed it. His descendents were twins Romulus and Remus. Evil uncle tried to kill them by leaving them near a flooded river. a kindly she-wolf nursed them back to health and Romulus became first king of Rome.
Two important social classes in the Roman Republic
Patricians: Nobles/ Aristocrats (wealthy)
Plebeians: Common people such as peasants, craftspeople, traders, not able to be in government.
Oligarchy: Means "Ruled by a few". In this form of government, a political party or othersmall group takes over a government and makes all of the major decisions.
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