Although linear and non-linear progress is most common, almost no aspect of human change follows an exact linear pattern.
Development takes place within many contexts. Certain innovations and experiences shape the people in each cohort and generation. Social Economic Class impacts life long development.
Learning within each culture looks different and human behaviors are passed down from generation to generation.
Development is connected to prior events but also to change.
Basic Contours of Human Development
A group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations that have been made about human growth. Helps provide the framework for explaining the patterns and problems of development.
Sensitive Periods of Development
When a particular development occurs most easily, although is still may happen later but with more difficulty.
The influence of genes that people inherit.
Environmental influences, starting with the diet and health of the embryo's mother, and continuing life-long including family, school, community, and society.
Critical Period of Development
A time when a particular type of developmental growth (in body or behavior) must happen if it is ever going to happen.
A learning process in which meaningful stimulus (such as the smell of food to a hungry animal) gradually comes to be connected with a neutral stimulus (such as a particular sound) that had no special meaning before the learning process began. Pavlov
The learning process in which particular action is followed either by something desired (which makes the person or animal more likely to repeat the action) or by something unwanted (makes the action less likely to be repeated). B.F. Skinner
A Russian Scientists
Won the Nobel Prize for his work on Animal Digestion (experimented with dogs)
Studies led to Classical Conditioning
The most influential North American Behaviorist
Best known for his work with rats and pigeons
Studies led to Operant Conditioning
The Psychoanalytic theory originated with Freud an Austrian Physician. Thought that development stopped after puberty. (Psychosexual)
Freud's Stages of Development
The first 6 years consisted of 3 stages (each characterized by sexual pleasure)...
Infants - Oral stage (mouth)
Early Childhood - Anal stage (anus)
Preschool - Phallic stage (penis)
Then comes... Latency
Genital ( started at puberty, continues into adult)
Was one of Freud's followers who became famous for his own developmental stages, characterized by a challenging developmental crisis. (Psychosocial)
Erikson's Stages of Development
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Integrity vs. Dispair
A theory of human development that studies observable behavior. Arose in direct opposition to the Psychoanalytic theory which focuses on hidden urges.
Behaviorism vs. Psychoanalytic Theory
Developmental Psychologist have benefitted from studying how humans learn behaviors.
Inner drives (Psychoanalytic) vs. External Stimuli (Behaviorism)
Behavioral scientist focus on how babies learn certain behaviors
Seen and measurable is more scientific
A theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time. According to this theory, our thoughts shape our attitudes beliefs and behaviors.
Realized babies are curious and thoughtful and develop their own schema (mini-theories)
Systems Theory (Ecological)
A view that in the study of human development, the persons should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life.
Believed that each person is affected by many systemic contexts and interactions.
Microsystems - A persons immediate surroundings
Ecosystems - Local institutions
Macrosystems - Larger social setting
These three nested levels influence their development.
A way to answer questions that require empirical research and data based conclusions.
Steps of the Scientific Method
Begin with curiosity, pose a question
Develop a hypothesis
Test hypothesis, gather empirical evidence (data)
Draw conclusions, support/refute hypothesis
Report the results
* Use replication after step 5
Most convenient, quick, and least expensive way to study development. Groups of people of one age are compared with people of another age. Must make sure that groups are similar in every way but age.
A research design in which same individuals are followed over time and their development is repeatedly assessed.
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