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Which of the following is NOT one of Paul Baltes' seven characteristics of the life-span perspective on development?
Although maximum life span of humans has not changed, during the 20th century life expectancy in the United States has:
Which of the following statements BEST describes the relationship between biological, cognitive, and socioemotional development?
Researchers increasingly study the experiences and psychological orientations of adults at different points in their development. This implies that development is:
Each fall, the choir teacher faces the task of retraining the deepening voices of some of his male students. What period of development are these students most likely in?
The developmental period during which changes are rapid and primarily biological is:
Becoming a grandmother is an example of __________ age.
Biological processes such as puberty and menopause are:
The functional capacities of a person's vital organ system indicate __________ age.
Lauro is 83 years old. Much of his development will now focus on:
Len feels greatly contented in his career. Now that his medical clinic is doing well, he has more time in hand to spend with his family. What period of development is he most likely in?
At what age do more people claim to be happiest?
Life-span development is the study of human development from conception to death. Historically, however, most of the focus has been on which age group?
Doctors measure and chart a baby’s height, weight, and head growth at each medical check up. What processes are being tracked?
What developmental period is marked by sizeable losses in cognitive potential and a high prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease?
At what age do people enter the “oldest old” age group?
Henry's family and friends believe that he is too old to take up skydiving and urge him to "act more his age." These expectations are based on Henry's __________ age.
According to life-span development expert Paul Baltes, which age period dominates development?
Baltes describes development as multidirectional. What does this mean?
Development is characterized by both growth and decline.
Kathy believes that life-span development cannot be studied without considering biological, social, and cognitive aspects. Kathy believes that development is:
In the United States, most individuals begin school around age 5. This is an illustration of how development is:
The upper boundary of the human lifespan is approximately __________ years.
____________ is the formation of a connection between parent and newborn.
Gina is pregnant and is a heavy smoker. Compared to the baby of a nonsmoker, her baby is MORE likely to suffer from which of the following?
The BEST way to prevent fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is to:
completely abstain from drinking during the entire pregnancy.
Which of the following prenatal diagnostic tests would detect spina bifida?
Melinda and Joseph both have brown eyes. Their child has blue eyes, showing that:
both Melinda and Joseph are carrying a recessive gene for blue eyes.
Conditions, such as phenylketonuria or sickle cell anemia, are produced by __________ abnormalities.
Fertilization results in the formation of a(n):
Which of the following principles is demonstrated when one gene overrides the effect of a second gene?
During which stage of childbirth does the cervix dilate?
How many chromosomes does an egg or a sperm have?
Which of the following is a double-helix shaped molecule that contains genetic information?
All of a person’s genetic material makes up the __________, whereas the __________ consists of only observable characteristics.
Which of the following is the prenatal development period that takes place during the first 2 weeks after conception, includes creation of a zygote, and ends with attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall?
When does the zygote implant in the lining of the mother’s uterus?
Teri’s doctor has recommended that she take folic acid regularly throughout her pregnancy. The doctor is trying to prevent which of the following from occurring?
The designation preterm is determined by:
Renee’s baby was born just minutes ago, and the doctor is checking the baby’s heart rate, respiratory effort, and muscle tone. Renee’s baby is being given a(n):
Ora’s blood test shows a major reduction in acetylcholine. The effect of this may be responsible for:
Anya is growing up in an orphanage and receives very little emotional, mental, or physical stimulation and nurture. Anya’s brain development will likely be:
Which growth pattern sequence indicates that growth progresses from the top of the body to the bottom?
Lack of sleep in young children is linked with which of the following?
Which group is MOST likely to have the greatest sleep debt?
Age-related loss of muscle mass and strength is called:
What percentage of adult sleep is spent in REM sleep?
Which of the following is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics to reduce the risk of SIDS?
Which two theories claim that damage incurred by unstable oxygen molecules precipitates the aging process?
Beginning in early childhood, girls have more __________ tissue than boys and boys have more __________ tissue than girls.
Which brain lobe is responsible for voluntary movement, thinking, personality, and intentionality or purpose?
Kat’s doctor warns that prolonged and elevated levels of adrenaline and other anxiety-induced substances will increase Kat’s risk for many diseases. Which theory of aging does her doctor espouse?
Fifteen-year-old Tamara only gets about 6 hours of sleep each night. Which of the following behaviors may Tamara exhibit due to her lack of sleep?
What percentage of infant sleep is spent in REM sleep?
How much time can newborn Tyler’s parents expect him to sleep?
Which brain lobe is responsible for registering spatial location, attention, and motor control?
Thirty-nine-year-old Janice is considered sleep-deprived because she only gets about 6 hours of sleep instead of the recommended:
According to the cephalocaudal growth pattern, which of the following is likely to show fast growth first?
Seventeen-year-old Jake tends to take risks while driving and is quick-tempered. This lack of self-control and reasoning may be due to the later development of the:
Which area of baby Van’s brain shows increased brain activity when listening to speech sounds?
Which brain lobe is responsible for hearing, language processing, and memory?
Which structure is responsible for about 80 percent of the brain’s volume and critical to perception, thinking, and language?
Leonard’s blood test shows a major reduction in dopamine. The effect of this may be responsible for:
Most effective weight-loss programs include:
Jessica is extremely thin but complains that she is fat and exercises obsessively to avoid weight gain. Jessica is suffering from:
Kayla is an obese third grader. She is at risk for which of the following?
Incidences of diseases such as bacterial meningitis, measles, rubella, mumps, and chicken pox have been nearly eradicated, due to:
What is the leading cause of death in children in the United States?
The MOST widely used illicit drug in the United States is:
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration has identified __________ as an “invisible epidemic.”
Which age group is MOST likely to be binge drinkers?
The global term for a neurological disorder in which the primary symptom is deterioration of mental functioning is:
Kim is thin but has poor eating habits. She consumes large amounts of food at one time and then practically nothing for days. Kim often feels depressed over the lack of control she feels she has in her life. Kim appears to be suffering from:
__________ is a sustained activity that stimulates heart and lung functioning.
Men have a higher incidence of __________ chronic conditions, whereas women have a higher incidence of __________ chronic conditions.
What are the disorders characterized by a slow onset and long duration?
Pauline is middle-aged. Her greatest health concern is MOST likely to be:
Although aging people are often characterized as sickly, only __________ percent of U.S. adults aged 65 to 74 have a disability.
Reduced activity and subsequent obesity in children is linked to:
__________ provides temporary relief for those who are caring for individuals with disabilities, illnesses, or the elderly.
Pulmonary problems, hypertension, and diabetes are common consequences of childhood:
Which of the following involves an extensive loss of bone tissue?
. In addition to aerobic activity and stretching, gerontologists recommend __________ for older adults.
Doug does not recognize his home, neighbors, and even family members. Doug has a form of:
Which of the following is a benefit of regular exercise?
Well-developed gross motor skills allow infants to become more independent. Independence is important because it:
Chauncey yells, “I hear a train!” This example describes the processes of:
Older adults with __________ experience the most decline in health and functioning.
Fifty-two-year-old Curtis is beginning to lose his ability to focus and maintain images on his retina. This condition is known as:
Which taste preference develops at about 4 months of age?
What skills involve keenly tuned movements such as buttoning a shirt or typing?
Sensation occurs when information interacts with sensory receptors such as:
Infants normally are able to sit, stand, stoop, climb, and walk within the first:
Dalton enrolled his daughter in a soccer league to help her develop:
Gross motor skills include activities such as running, while fine motor skills include activities such as:
Hearing can start to decline by the age of 40. What usually declines first?
According to the dynamic systems theory, how do infants develop motor skills?
Which of the following statements is true regarding smell and taste in the elderly?
. Research indicates that babies are first able to use their sense of taste __________ birth.
Which of the following statements is true of fine motor skill development during middle and late childhood?
The Moro reflex is a response to __________, whereas the grasping reflex is a response to __________.
Adaptive, built-in reactions to stimuli are called:
Allan is having laser surgery to repair the deterioration of his retina. He has:
Which of the following is true of older adults’ experience of touch and pain?
Peak physical performance usually occurs during:
Many preschool children are:
Will is going to have surgery to remove a thick layer on his eye that is causing cloudy vision. He has:
As measured on the Snellen chart, a newborn’s vision is estimated to be:
Like Piaget, Vygotsky believed that children:
The concrete operational stage lasts from ages:
Mr. Jericho, an elementary school math teacher, needs to teach his students how to make change. Vygotsky would recommend that he:
Adam cries that the tree root tripped him. This is an example of:
Ms. Whitaker incorporates peer tutoring in her classroom. With whose theory does this method fit?
Piaget’s theory of development centered on interaction with the physical world, while Vygotsky’s focused on:
According to Piaget, adolescents differ from younger children in that younger children cannot:
What did Vygotsky believe about the development of thought and language?
Thought and language develop independently at first and merge later in development.
Mimi crawls into the hallway to look for her mother after she leaves the room. According to Piaget, this shows Mimi is capable of:
According to Piaget and Vygotsky, a teacher’s role is that of:
Brent talks himself through his math calculation homework. This is an example of:
A reversible mental action on a real object is a:
Which of the following is NOT an element of postformal thought?
Object permanence is important because it means that infants are able to:
The cognitive process of assimilation occurs when individuals:
What is the main difference between a reflex and a habit?
Neither Vygotsky’s nor Piaget’s theory had much to say about:
Vygotsky differs from Piaget in how he stresses the importance of __________ for cognitive development.
According to William Perry, adult thinking is:
Which of the following is the correct order of Piaget’s cognitive developmental stages?
According to Vygotsky, the range of tasks that are too difficult for the child to master alone, but that can be learned with guidance and assistance, is:
A kindergarten teacher instructs parent volunteers to take a Piagetian approach when interacting with his students during learning center time. He recommends the volunteers:
Vygotsky’s theory states that children use speech not only for social communication but also for:
According to Piaget, what is a child’s motivation for change?
Tim understands that vehicles may be cars, buses, trucks, or vans. This is an example of:
Lexi calls every animal she sees a cat. This is an example of:
While Leah works on a science experiment, she is manipulating and assembling new information, making decisions, and solving problems. What type of memory is she using?
Rob is listening to Katie’s anecdote amidst the loud music and laughter of many others at the party. This is an example of __________ attention.
Compared to younger adults, older adults show greater activity in the frontal and parietal regions while they are engaging in tasks that require cognitive control processes such as:
“Knowing about knowing” is called:
The cognitive developmental theories of Vygotsky, Piaget, and information processing share a focus on how people:
Jake is only 25 years old but wants to reduce his chance of losing cognitive impairment when he is older. What can he do now to prepare?
Without rehearsal, how long can information remain in short-term memory?
In general, why are 40-year-olds better problem solvers than 20-year-olds?
80-year-old Betty believes in the concept of “use it or lose it.” In which of the following activities should Betty engage in order to “use it” and reduce rate of cognitive decline?
“I remember my first vacation to Manhattan, New York, in 1949, and staying at the Casablanca Hotel,” says Mabel, who is 77 years old. This is an example of:
What are the three processes required for memory?
Which of the following impacts an adolescent’s decision to engage in risk-taking behaviors?
all of these
Which of the following statements accurately describes processing speed?
Mackenzie easily recalls events in her life but has difficulty remembering trivia. Mackenzie shows good __________ memory, but poor __________ memory.
General academic and field-of-expertise knowledge is labeled __________ memory.
While studying for a History exam, Michael finds it easier to recall details if he creates a mental picture relating to the information he is reviewing. What memory strategy is he using?
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