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a geographic gradient in the frequency of a gene. The syntheticgene maps we kept referencing in class was a form of clinal analysis.
- Facial hair- due to high androgens, may serve as a symbols of goodgenes, masculinity, health.
- Eye color- lighter eyes are more attractive to mostpeople, most likely because it allows people to assess pupil dilation (serves as a proxy for emotional state).
- Most ofthese phenotypic traits seem to be linked to attraction and mating strategies.
Variation in human stature, weight, and shape-
Varies across populations. For example, US cutoffs are too highfor the Japanese. Also can serve as a sign of health and therefore fitness, butthis has varied over time. Thousands of years ago, higher BMI was more desiredbecause it meant the individual had adequate access to resources such as food.Today a higher BMI brings with it many health issues and in turn lower fitness,which is why a lower BMI is more desirable.
Humans have more areas to deposit fat than animals likedeer, so we are able to lay down large deposits of fat when times are good, inpreparations for times when food is scarce. Onset of Menstruation “Menarche”related to fat distribution of leptin secreted by adipose tissue in the lowerbody (glutealfemoral fat) When fat is too low -> menarche does not occur ormenstruation stops.
A high degree of fataccumulation in and around the buttocks.The deposit of fat is not confined to the glutealregions, but extends to the outside and front of the thighs,forming a thick layer reaching sometimes to the knee.Occurs mostly in women. Is a genetic characteristic of the Khoisan and the Bantupeoples.
One of the big realizations of human evolution is that we are muchless sexually dimorphic compared to our ape cousins. Even if fossil humans have dimorphic qualities, their canine sizesusually are reduced. Thereis hypothesis that sexual selection was less physical in males even in ourearliest ancestors and therefore a different mating system and mating strategyfor our ancestors. Possibly more egalitarian society coupled with social sexualmonogamy
- Light eye color contrasted more with dark pupils, dilated pupilsshowed more interest and thus were seen as more attractive.
- Skin pigmentationin accordance with the vitamin D hypothesis for selection of populations forthe normal range of vitamin D depending on sunlight intensity. (lighter skinaway from equator, darker skin toward it and in high altitudes where atmosphereis thinner)
- original inhabitants of japan, came in when theycould walk across parts of waterways between Japanese islands.
- very heavy brow ridges, great development ofhair on face and texture is different from Japanese peoples and hair shafts areactually thinner.
- Hair is slightlywaved as compared to Japanese who have very straight.
- now in reservation system - elaborate facial tattoos
still fall in lightly pigmented groups. Hair can be wavy toslightly curly (the greater degree of curvature to hair shaft, the greater thedegree of the curl)
used in 1960s to separate proteins based on how large they are--in the 1960s there were all kinds of biologists who began to study plants andanimals using this method, making decisions about species differentiation.
The distance between the iliai of the os coxae of the pelvicgirdle. Body mass can be estimated from stature and bi-iliac (maximum pelvic)breadth with reasonable accuracy but this may not hold true for high latitudepopulations. High latitude populations have an exceptionally wide bi-iliacbreadth.
- The hairless condition itself did not evolve because of apartiality for smooth skin, as averred by Darwin
- evolved primarily because of theneed to lose body heat from the skin’s surface during exertion and under hotenvironmental conditions.
- Cooling by evaporation of eccrine sweat isimpeded by thick body hair.
a. Island dwarfed erectus or pathological sapiens
b. Modern adults from Rampasasa, Flores are still short but tallerthan previoulsy due to outbreeding.
c. Skull asymmetry may indicate some sort of pathology instead ofspeciation
d. rotated premolars may show pathology similar to pygmy’s
e. may be a hormone insensitivity - Larone’ssyndrome. low growth linked to low IGF-2 levels.
- Morehemoglobin, greater blood volume, higherblood pressure, greateroxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin, increasedpulmonary nitric oxide, slow growth, increased placental area
- Early life developments - greaterlung volume, greaterleft ventricle volume, increasedalveolar and capillary area
- depth andbreathing rate increase
- hemoglobinproduction increases and blood pressure rises (takes around 10 days)
- alveolarand capillary area increase (takes around 2 weeks) Causes strain on sacs
- . If they ascend too fast can get mountainsickness or HAPE.
- Lowlanders are incapable of engaging in the sort of physicalexertion at high altitudes that the highlanders are.
Symptoms: Nausea, Breathlessness, Hypertension, Headache,Dizziness, Cough. (lungs swell and alveoli burst & fill with fluid)
- condition where the body is deprived of anadequate supply of oxygen.
- Typically occurring in high altitude regionsalongside conditions like HAPE and altitude sickness.
I. Denisovan People - Found in china, ancient human pop in southernSiberia of which their DNA is greatly incorporated in Melanesian populations.
II. Have found Neanderthal material here as well.
- Linguists have been able to discern proto-languages that areancestral to current languages and this research began in the early 16th and 17thcenturies.
- We have many language families that are not necessarily reflected ingeology. Language can be just as important a feature as genetics intracing migrations of populations. Proto indo-european language is supposed tohave originated in Anatolia (modern day turkey) around 8000b.p.
- IGF-1 and IGF-2 levels are linked with low growth rates.
- The Pygmies had low levels of IGF 1, but normal levels of IGF2
- The presence of artifacts from the Clovis culture were the maindeterminants of the timing of entry into the Americas
- recent discoveryof the Buttermilk Creek Complex outdates Clovis culture by 2,500 years (date ofButtermilk Creek = 15,500 B.P.)
- Paleoindians- descendants of the 1st successful migration. Resemble people ofnorth central Asia
- Na Dene - 2nd successful migration. to northern forestsof Canada, and in Northern California. Uto-Aztecanpremolar, and a light eye mutation
- Inuit-Behaviorally adapted to cold weather. Intricateclothing & snow insulator in igloos.
- Aleuts- Aleutian Islands Came via water, used kayaks & simple boats. Used inventions such as water-tight clothing made from intestines.
- largestteeth of any population in the world
- sagittalkeeling evident
- huge browridges
Veddahs - hunter gatherers found in Sri Lanka, representAustralians genetically, however they are much shorter in stature and the hairis not as tightly curled. They have heavy browridges, and are lighter inbody build.
Tamil - people in Southern India look like Veddahs.
Human settlement of the PacificIslands
Melanesians, Micronesians, and Polynesians - they all used complexboating technology. Humans in the South Pacific are running out of landso they need to find new land/resources in other islands. They were able tosail across large water gaps, such as from Hawaii to Tahiti. If the islandswere big enough, they usually had their own native plant and animal species.
- The shift from hunting & gathering to agriculture ledto permanent settlements, the establishment of social classes,and the eventual rise of civilizations.
- About 10,000 BP, began tocultivate crops and domesticate certain animals. Change fromthe system of hunting and gathering from earliesttimes.
- population explosion of a magnitude not be seen again until theIndustrial Revolution.
- Beginning as early as 3000years ago, an arawak speaking people now called the Mojo and Baure, created oneof the largest , strangest, and most ecologically rich artificial environmentson the planet, in the Amazon. These people built up mounds for homes and farms,constructed the causeways and canals for transportation and communication,created fish weirs to feed themselves, and burned the savannas to keep them clearof invading trees.
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