People & their ideas: R. Dart ? Australian that found Australopithecus africanus in Taung. Idea of australopithecines as ?killer apes? R. Broom ? supported Dart, found australopithecine endocast C.K Brain ? directed Transvaal museum, excavated Swartkrans. Disproved Dart?s idea. E. Dubois ? Dutch anatomist with 2 separate findings of H. erectus D. Black ? concluded H. erectus fossils belonged to early hominid F. Weidenreich ? followed Black?s work at Zhoukoudian (H. erectus) R. Clarke ? G. Isaac - ran Koobi Fora field site and came up with home base model of hominin behavior D. Johanson ? found Lucy skeleton A. afarensis P. Tobias ? Leakeys ? Mary and Louis Leakey ? found Australopithecus boisei and homo habilis. Their daughter-in-law found kanyanthropus platyops T. White ? suggested Bipedalism of skeleton found in Aramis ? named Ardipithecus ramidus Chpt 7 Affiliative: Pertaining to amicable associations between individuals. Affiliative behaviors, such as grooming, reinforce social bonds and promote group cohesion. life history traits: Characteristics and developmental stages that influence rates of reproduction. Examples include longevity, age at sexual maturity, and length of time between births. dominance hierarchies: Systems of social organization wherein individuals within a group are ranked relative to one another. Higher-ranking individuals have greater access to preferred food items and mating partners than do lower-ranking individuals. Reproductive strategies: The complex of behavioral patterns that contributes to individual reproductive success. The behaviors need not be deliberate, and they often vary considerably between males and females. Estrous ? sexual dimorphism. Part of female reproduction cycle, females sexually receptive during estrus. Often lead to changes in skin in female catarrhine. Sexual selection - A type of natural selection that operates on only one sex within a species. Sexual selection results from competition for mates, and it can lead to sexual dimorphism regarding one or more traits. Language ? broca?s area: for producing words and language, Wernicke?s area: for producing meaningful language, Basal metabolic rate ? the rate at which the body uses energy at a resting state to maintain body functions. Sympatry ? species living in same area with overlapping habitats Matrilines ? groupings of females who are descendants of one female Predation ? depends on body size and social structure and type of predator Chpt 8-9 Primate locomotion ? arboreal, tree to tree. Quadrupedal: plantigrade, flat footed; digitigrades, cheetah on toes; unguligrade, huffed. Bipedal. Behavioral ecology ? discipline that examines behavior from the perspective of complex ecological relationships and the role of natural selection as it favors behaviors that increase reproductive fitness. Proconsul ? Genus was considered the first ape, found by Mary Leakey Sexual selection/sexual dimorphism ? males larger with larger canines. Plesiadapoid primates ? first primate Aegyptopithecus ? proposed as ancestor to both old world monkeys and hominoids Paleoecology ? using fossils to reconstruct ecosystems of the past Analogy ? similarities between organisms with no common evolutionary descent. Homology ? similarities between organisms due to common ancestor Adapoids (Adapis) ? first fossil primate named, described by Cuvier Stem group ? all of the taxa in a clade before a major speciation event Geological timescale - The organization of earth history into eras, periods, and epochs Global climate changes Euprimates - ?True primates.? This term was coined by Elwyn Simons in 1972. Omomyoids (Rooneiya, Necrolemur, etc) ? Earliest haplorhine group, tarsier-like Y-5 vs. bilophodont pattern ? bilophodont have four cusps in two parallel rows, Old World Monkeys. Y-5 has 5 cusps forming a Y shape, hominoids. Prosimian vs. Anthropoid characteristics ? Prosimians are lorises and lemurs, have rhinariums (wet snouts), orbital bars while Anthropoids have full orbital closure, grooming claws, dental combs, etc. New World vs. Old World Anthropoid characteristics ? New World monkeys have prehensile tails and flat noses, dental formula is 18.104.22.168. Old world primates 22.214.171.124. Chpt 10-14 Ape vs. human skeletal differences ? humans flatter pelvis than chimps, differences in posture of femur (chimps-straight down, humans-angled), shape of knee-joint (chimps-round,small, humans-oval, bigger), foot morphology (chimps-long,curved phalanges, humans-short,straight), cranial differences (chimps-large nuchal muscles, large face, small vault.. humans-chin, small face, large vault) Culture/Tradition - Culture is a set of learned behaviors transmitted from one generation to the next by nonbiological (i.e., nongenetic) means. Behavioral Plasticity - ability for an individual to change its behavior, adapt to changes in its enironment Ranging behavior - how primates range through their environment and trackways are what we found in Laetoli, the footprints of australopithecus afarensis Communication - Any act that conveys information, in the form of a message, to another individual. Biocultural evolution - The mutual, interactive evolution of human biology and culture Encephalization - increase in brain size over and above what we would expect given the body size of a species Osteodontokeratic Culture ? Dart?s idea, thought A. africanus was murdering other australopithecines. Oldowan Industry ? earliest stone tool industry used by hominines from 2.6-1.7 mya. Core/Flake - Stone reduced by flake removal. Acheulean Industry - characterized by a large proportion of bifacial tools (flaked on both sides). Acheulian tool kits are common in Africa, Southwest Asia, and western Europe, but they?re thought to be less common elsewhere. H. habilis first to use it 1.7 mya. Bipedalism (origins & anatomy) ? Baboons sleep vertically, Sulawesi macaque sometimes walk bipedally. Mosaic evolution - pattern in which physiological and behavioral systems evolve at diff rates. Taphonomy - The study of how bones and other materials came to be buried in the earth and preserved as fossils. Geological periods Trackways - what we found in Laetoli, the footprints of australopithecus afarensis Litho-/Bio/Magnetostratigraphy Hominin bone modification Chronometric Dating - A dating technique that gives an estimate in actual numbers of years; also known as absolute dating. Glaciation - Climatic intervals when continental ice sheets cover much of the northern continents. Fire technology ? H. erectus first to use controlled fire. Later species definitely used fire. Human dispersal Sahelanthropus ? tchadensis first recorded likely bipeds dating to about 7 mya. Orrorin ? tugenesis second oldest known hominin after Sahelanthropus Ardipithecus ?ramidus likely evolves into Lucy?s species Australolpithecines Australopithecus afarensis ? Lucy?s species, robust. Has a gracile counterpart in South Africa called A. africanus. Robust cranial A. boisei (East Africa) and A. robustus (South Africa). Au. Garhi and A. anamensis both robust East African versions. Genus Homo H. habilis ? arguably the first homo H. rudolfensis ? East Africa H. erectus ? South Africa, East Africa, Middle East, Asia H. heidelbergensis (or Archaic humans) ? begin in Africa and likely move to Europe where they evolve into Neanderthals-Mousterian Industry-in Europe but not Africa. H. sapiens sapiens from Africa about 200,000 years ago. Neanderthals surviving in Europe. Modern humans migrate out of Africa around 80,000 years ago and interbreed with Neanderthals and end up displacing Neanderthals genetically. A. africanus Swartkran- Taung Child (R. Dart studied) A. Afarensis Laetoli- near Hadar- many A. afarensis evidence Hadar- A. afarensis where Johanson found Lucy skeleton- H.Heidelbergensis Steinheim- Germany- nearly complete skull, lacking mandible of H. heidelbergensis Atapuerca- h. heidelbergensis fossils- 4,000 fossil fragments revered. 80% from Middle Pleistocene Kabwe (Broken Hill)- H. heidelbergensis Late Middle Pleistocene; nearly complete cranium, cranial fragments of 2nd individual,. Swanscombe- H. heidelbergensis (England) occipital & parientals of) Hominid Dmanisi- location for earliest hominids. Terra Amata- (France) most detailed reconstruction of Middle Pleistocene life in Europe, hominid groups Sterfontein ? fossil evidence of early hominid foot structure as well as important new fossils (Clark and Tobias). Sangiran- 1.6 my ? atleast 5 individuals; crania & a few postcranial remains Species: Proconsul -Lived in Africa 23-17mya -Considered the first Ape -Quadraped -Dental Ape (i.e. Y-5 Molars) -Skull found in Kenya by Mary Leakey Pliopithecus -Lived in Europe during the middle Miocene (Aprox. 15-10mya) -Little or no tail lacking a grasping feature of New World Monkeys -Possessed features for suspensory locomotion (Long arms) Aegyptopithecus -North Africa; the Fayum (Egypt) -126.96.36.199 Dental Formula -Ancestors of both later catarrhines and hominoids -33-32 mya Dryopithecus -12-9 Mya -Europe, Southern France & Northern Spain -Long arms, hands, and fingers (ability to brachiate) -Rarely descended from the trees -Highly arboreal species Hominins: Sahelanthropus tchadensis -7-6 mya -Small Brain case (320-380 cc) -Huge Browridges, Crest on Top -Found in Chad -Oldest Hominin Orrorin tugenensis -6.0 mya + -Tugen Hills (East Africa) -First hominin with post cranial remains -Thought to be bipedal Ardipithecus ramidus -4.4 mya -Thin tooth enamel compared to the thick enamel of other early hominins -Names by Tim White Australopithecus afarensis -Small Brain (420 cc) -3.6-3.0 mya -Parallel Teeth -Found in Hadar & Laetoli (East Africa) -Biped , Lucy Australopithecus africanus -2.5-2.0 mya -Taung & Sterfontein (South Africa) -Quite Derived -Likely evolutionary dead end -Small brain (440cc) -Large-Toothed Australopithecus boisei -2.5-1.2 mya -Olduvai & East Turkana (East Africa) -Small cranial capacity (510-530cc) -Broad face with massive back teeth and lower jaw -sagittal crest -Fair degree of sexual dimorphism Australopithecus robustus -2.0-1.2 mya -Discovered by Raymond Dart -Swartkrans & Drimolen (South Africa) -Large Sagittal Crest -Large molars and lower jaw -well adapted bipeds Australopithecus garhi -2.5 mya -Discovered in Gona (first sight to have stone tools 2.6 myo) -Discovered with tools from the Oldwan industry Australopithecus anamensis -4.2-3.0 mya -Large canines & sectorial lower first premolar (adapted for cutting or shearing) -East Africa -Bipedal Homo habilis -Discovered by Louis Leakey -Olduvai Gorge (East Africa) -2.4 - 1.4 mya -Very small in size -increase in brain capacity (631cc) -"Handy Man" Homo rudolfensis -1.8 mya -Most researchers do not consider them to be their own species Homo erectus -1.9mya - 500,000 ya -Migrated very fast -associated with the Acheulean Industry -Sexually dimorphic -Thick cranial bone, large brow-ridges, and a projecting nuchal torus East Turkana(Africa) Olduvai- Louis Leakey- H. erectus Zhoukoudian- h. erectus (near Bejing), where scientists located Homo erectus bones. Nariokotome ?(West Turkana) found most complete skeleton of H. erectus Trinil- h. erectus- many findings near here and Ngandong. Bilzingsleben- (Germany) There are limestone casts of leaves, trees, and humans that they found. Dmanisi (site in Europe)
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