HUMBIO 103 Study Guide (2013-14 Mammone)
- Ohio University
- Human Biology
- Human Biology 103
- HUMBIO 103 Study Guide (2013-14 Mammone)
Last Modified: 2014-06-30
Related Textbooks:Human Biology: Concepts and Current Issues (7th Edition)
Related Textbooks:Human Biology: Concepts and Current Issues with mybiology (6th Edition)
2. eukaryotic cells have many membrane bound organelles and prokaryotic cells have no membrane bound organelles
composed of cells
respond to stimuli
growth and reproduction
found in extreme environments
obtain food from sunlight (photosynthesis)
eat plants and other animals
1. variation – most populations have organisms with variation
2. inheritance – some differences are heritable
3. differential survival and reproduction (fitness) –individuals with a trait (adaptation) well suited for the struggle will contribute to the next generation
4. evolution (change in genetics over time) may then occur
lack of food or drought
name and explain the 2 major events that are thought to have occurred in the endosymbiotic theory.
- folding in of the cell membrane to make organelles
- engulfing of cells that eventually became organelles
what does the endosymbiotic theory explain in terms of evolution?
electron transport chain system
2 ATP, NADH, and 2 pyruvate
electron transport system
NADH and FADH2 give up electrons and hydrogen ions, releasing energy
line spaces and passageways of body
found in glands around the body
it is important that the cells are tightly joined so they can function to be very selective and impermeable barrier between adjacent cells.
bone matrix is hard matrix and has blood vessels
blood matrix are cells suspended in a fluid called plasma
matrix of bone contains calcium and phosphate
nerves and blood vessels are in the middle. osteons are the structure of compact bone, normally in cylindrical structure. interstitial lamellae are contained in the spaces between osteons and perform the important function of providing stability to the long bones.
3. Smooth (in organs)
regulate body temp
help synthesize vitamin D
acts as cushion/insulator
fibers in dermis (think wrinkles)
small blood vessels
DNA (think may lead to cancer)
C - color
D - diameter
E - evolution, change over time
protects interal organs
aids in movement
produces blood cells
3. Protection - covers many vital organs
4. Blood cell production - all blood cells come from red blood marrow
5. Storage - mineral storage such as calcium and phosphorus. Fat stores in yellow bone marrow
general term for any cells that have not yet differentiated. stem cells in bone marrow are the source of all blood cells and platelets
cartilage forming cells that build a model of the future bone
- bone as a fetus starts
- 2-3 months cartilage turns to bone
- starts in shaft then to heads of the bone
models of future bones are created out of hyaline cartilage by cartilage-forming cells called chondroblasts. after the process of ossification, osteoblasts mix with proteins and form a matrix that provides internal structure and strength to the bone. bones continue to grow throughout childhood and adolescence due to a narrow strip of cartilage called the growth plate. cartilage is also at the end of long bones.
- life long process where old bone is reshaped based on stressors on the skeleton
- added where needed (osteoblasts) and removed (osteoclasts)
hematoma (blood clot forms)
cartilaginous callus forms
bony callus forms
the maintenance of homeostasis of bone structure depends on the precise balance of activities of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. osteoporosis is a common condition in which bones lose a great deal of mass (seemingly becoming “porous” because of an imbalance over many years in the rates of activities of these two types of bone cells.
cross section of muscle reveals that it is arranged in bundles called fascicles, each enclosed in a sheath of a type of fibrous connective tissue called fascia
a skeletal muscle cell must be activated by a nerve. It does not contract on its own.
nerve activation increases the concentration of calcium in the vicinity of the contractile proteins.
the presence of calcium permits contraction. The absence of calcium prevents contraction.
when a muscle cell is no longer stimulated by a nerve, contraction ends.
nerves stop stimulating the muscle cell
ach will stop being released
calcium sequestered (ATP is use)
cross bridges stop being formed= no more contraction
shortly after death, calcium begins to leak out of the sarcoplasmic reticulum causing muscle contraction. the contractions use up the available ATP which in this case cannot be replenished. without ATP the myosin heads detach from actin and the muscles remain in a “locked” concentrated state. this stiffness is known as rigor mortis.
slow twitch fibers- endurance
fast twitch fibers-quick bursts of energy
anaerobic training increases the size, mass and strength of a muscle. what is increasing in the muscle cells that allow this to occur in this type of training?
builds more myofibrils and cause fast twitch fibers to store more glycogen and creatine phosphate as quick energy sources.
the number of blood capillaries supplying muscle increase. in addition, the number of mitochondria in muscle cells and the amount of myoglobin available to store oxygen both increase.
contraction of skeletal muscles
valves (only in veins)
two ventricles (bottom)
from the right atrium, the blood passes through a valve into the right ventricle. the right ventricle then pumps blood through a second valve and into the artery leading to the lungs. blood returning from the lungs to the heart enters the left atrium ad then passes into a third valve into the left ventricle. The left ventricle pumps blood through a fourth valve into the body’s largest artery, the aorta.
where does blood pump to from the right ventricle? left ventricle?
1. when the blood returns to the heart from the veins, it enters the right atrium. The blood that returns to the heart is deoxygenated—it has given up on oxygen to tissue cells and taken up carbon dioxide.
2. from the right atrium, blood passes through the right atrioventricular valve into the right ventricle.
3. the right ventricle pumps the pulmonary trunk (the main pulmonary artery) leading to the lungs. the pulmonary trunk divides into the right and left pulmonary arteries, which supply the right and left lungs, respectively.
4. at the pulmonary capillaries, blood gives up carbon dioxide and receives a fresh supply of oxygen from the air we inhale. It is now oxygenated.the freshly oxygenated blood flows into the pulmonary veins leading back to the heart. It enters the left atrium and flows through the left atrioventricular valve into the left ventricle.
1. the left ventricle pumps blood through the aortic semilunar valve into the aorta, the largest artery.
2. from the aorta, blood travels through the branching arteries and arterioles to the capillaries, where it delivers oxygen and nutrients to all of the body’s tissues and organs and removes waste products.From the capillaries, blood flows to the venules, veins, and then back again to the right atrium
skeletal muscle 15%
what is the number one killer of americans?
the lowest pressure occurs during ventricular diastole when the ventricles relax
1. Transportation- of nutrients, waste and hormones
2. Regulation- temperature, water volume, pH level
3. Defense- against infections and bleeding
3.5-5.4 million cells/cubic mm
carry oxygen to tissues
Erythropoietin (EPO) which is produced in the kidney.
Infusing own blood or r-EPO into the bloodstream to increase hematocrit levels à better performance
Describe the functions of the following white blood cells and know if they are short or long-lived in lifespan: neutrophil, basophil, eosinophil, monocyte/macrophage, lymphocyte.
What is a stem cell? Where are blood cells and platelets (together called formed elements) made?
- Stem cells are immature and undifferentiated cells that replace cells in the body tissues
- All formed elements start out as stem cells then become one of the formed elements depending on what the body tells the red bone marrow to make.
Natural killer cells
What is mononucleosis and leukemia?
Mono –viral infection causes increase in lymphocytes
Leukemia –cancer of WBC increase abnormal cells, decrease normal cells
- The antibodies in the recipients blood
- The sugars (antigens) on the donors blood
Antibody injection right around the time of birth of the new baby
What combination of Rh factor in the father, mother and 1st fetus can lead to second and later fetuses being attacked by the antibodies that the mother has made with a first pregnancy? Understand Rh factor and pregnancy.
understand Rh factor and pregnancy.
problem: Rh+ man, Rh- women with an Rh+ fetusà may result in hemolytic disease of the newborn, a disorder characterized by a reduced number of red blood cells and toxic levels of hemoglobin breakdown products in the newborn. HDN can lead to mental retardation or even death.
What often causes coronary artery disease? What can it lead to?
coronary artery disease is often a result of atherosclerosis, so it caused by some type of plaque buildup and hardening of the arteries. it can often lead to a heart attack.
an interruption of blood flow to the brain. results from blood clots or ruptured blood vessels
-lack of exercise
-high blood pressure
-diet (high fat/cholesterol/salt and red meat)
metal stents placed and left in artery to help keep the artery open thus allowing blood flow.
red blood cells (44%)
white blood cells and platelets make up rest
hemoglobin (3,000,000), which carries oxygen molecules around the body
contains histamine (stain dark blue)
histamine is an inflammatory chemical that makes blood vessels leaky and attracts other WBCs to the inflammatory site
what is the Rh factor on blood cells? how do you know based on blood type is someone has it?
Rh blood typing is based on Rh factor. Another red blood cell surface antigen. About 85% of Americans are Rh positive meaning they carry the Rh antigen on their red blood cells. About 15% are Rh negative meaning they do not carry it. Another definition of Rh factor is a “D” protein found on red blood cells.
- Immune Response
- Killer T-Cells
- Living organisms
- Prions - Zero survival rate
- Single celled
- Prokaryotic cells
- Lyme Disease
- Toxic Shock Syndrome
- Extremely Small
- Much Smaller than Bacteria
- Viable to reproduce outside of the body
- No Metabolic Activity
- Chicken Pox
- Infectious proteins
- Normal Brain Proteins not folded correctly
- Resist cooking, freezing and drying
- Mad Cow Disease
- Creutzfiled - Jakob
- Body Fluids
- Maintenance of Blood Volume
- Transports fats and fat soluble material from digestive system
- Lymph Vessels
- Lymph nodes
- Thymus Gland
First Line of Defense
- Tears and Salavia
- Ear Wax
- Stomach - High Acidic
- Vagina - Slightly Acidic
- Vomiting, urination, defecation
Second line of defense
- Phogocytic Cells - White Blood Cells
- Natural Killer Cells
- Interferons - Antiviral proteins
Third line of Defense
- Activated when foreign substances invade the body
- Has Memory
- Components of the immune system:
-Humoral Immune Response
-Cellular Immune Response
- IgG - Most Prevelent in Blood
- IgA - Found in secretions including Breast Milk
- igM - 1st produced in immune response
- igE- Ellergic reaction
- igD- Function is unclear
- Helper T, CD4 - Memory cells
- Cytotoxic T, CD8 Killer and Suppressor cells
- Secret Cytokinis, which stimulate immune cells
- Play key role in directing immune response
- Are targeted by HIV infection
see if there is a specific antigen present or a specific processed or intact antigen seen. they are specific
memory B cells: remember foreign things for next time
name four things that antibodies can do to help stop or eliminate an infectious agent
tag things to tell other cells to phagosize the cell
activate complement proteins to work faster
cause clumping of all of the bad cells so they can be phagosatized
neutralize virus/bacteria by covering antibodies
primary- slow, short lasting, not a strong response
secondary- fast, more antibodies, immediate antibody production, strong, long lasting
our own immune system attacks our own body cells
ecounters an antigen (incubation)
very specific recogntition
improves after first exposure because of memory cells(immunity)
where are gases exchanged in the respiratory system? what are these structures covered in that allows the exchange into the rest of the body?
what do alveoli and capillaries structurally have in common? (what are they made of and how thick are the cell layers)
both are made of only a single layer of epithelial tissue; this allows for better diffusion of gases than a thicker layer/multiple layers would.
what does oxygen bind to on hemoglobin molecules? be specific.
oxygen binds to 4 iron molecules on the hemoglobin, this is why it is important to get iron in your diet.
what are the conditions in the body tissues that allows for oxygen to be released where it is needed in active tissues?
more acidic pH
we need yearly vaccinations for influenza. explain why using the concept of antigenic drift.
antigenic drift is when surface proteins change on a yearly basis. so, you get slight shifts of surface proteins, and these slight changes are enough for our immune system to respond differently. this explains why you need to get another flu virus every year, so you have some protection against the modified form of the influenza.
what is antigenic shift as it relates to the influenza virus and why it is worrisome to humans?
antigenic shift is large scale changes in surface proteins as a result of mixing of more than one flu virus. this is worrisome to humans because it means that the influenza is much more novel, meaning that there will be less immunity against it and it is more likely to cause death when introduced to the population
do tobacco products result in just a couple of types of cancers, one type or many types?
on average how many years of life do smokers lose compared to nonsmokers?
on average, smokers lose 14 years of life.
Follow the order of structures as food passes through the body starting with the mouth.
What is peristalsis?
Smooth muscle moves food down the digestive tract
Where does the digestion of carbohydrates begin? Proteins? Lipids?
What are 2-3 functions of the stomach?
determines rate of delivery into the small intestine.
Neutralizes the acidic contents coming from the stomach into the small intestine
Makes and secretes digestives enzymes into the small intestine
Regulates blood sugar levels
How does the absorption of lipids and protein differ?
Proteins are broken down into amino acids and are transferred directly into a capillary.
Lipids: globules are broken down then emulsified (covered). Become covered in bile and keep fat droplets from forming bigger droplets (extra step). it gets transferred into a Lacteal and then to the blood.
It is used for emulisification. Covers globules so they don’t form bigger droplets
What happens in the large intestine?
Water absorption and feces are made.
What organ is needed most often for donation?
- Urinary tract infection. Caused by E.coli bacteria from anal region.
Women. Distance between anal opening and opening to urethra is much shorter. Urethra is much shorter à easily spread to the bladder.
Perpetuate Increases the genetic make up of individuals.
- Housed in the scrotum
where sperm are made,
- tube that carries sperm and
- picks up materials from glands to contribute to semen production
- tube through which semen (with sperm) leaves the body
List the path of the sperm and know that there are 3 glands that contribute to semen production (2 are pairs of glands and one is a single gland but you do not need to know their names).
- vas deferens
List the path of the sperm and know that there are 3 glands that contribute to semen production (2 are pairs of glands and one is a single gland but you do not need to know their names).
The sperm is made in the testes. Sperm then is stored (and matured) in the epididymis (~20 days). If the sperm is not used it will be reabsorbed. If it leaves the body it will enter the vas deferens (passes by the 3 glands: the seminal vesicles the prostate gland and the bulbourethral glands (add fructose – an energy source produce ATP to move tails, also add materials to increase pH so it is neutral or over neutral when it enters the female)). The sperm with the products from the glands together make up semen that will then enter the urethra that runs the length of the penis and will leave the body.
2 ovaries – makes eggs, produces hormones such as estrogen
2 fallopian tubes – carries the eggs, where fertilization occurs
1 uterus – where implantation occurs
1 cervix – lower part of the uterus, where cells are taken from in a pap smear to look for disease and health of the uterus.
1 vagina – birth canal
when chromosomes do not divide properly in the making of new cells so
some cells have too many chromosomes and some cells have too few.
underdeveloped male traits
mild mental impairment;
about 1/2000 live births
- XO female
- smaller breasts and ovaries;
- shortened life expectancies
- 1/10,000 live births
Name the three major types of birth control methods. Which one(s) aid in preventing sexually transmitted infections/diseases?
- Abstinence, barrier, hormonal
- Abstinence, condoms
What is pelvic inflammatory disease?
Bacterial infection causing inflammation that can lead to infection
What percentage of young (18-20) women in the US will probably have an infection with a virus that causes genital warts within 5 years?
What is thought to be the most common STI in the US?
What is thought to be the most common STI on our campus?
- Overgrowth of normal flora
- Vaginal discharge, odor, irritation
- yeast overgrow
- itchiness and redness
- nothing has invaded
- yes, yes
- an allergic reaction to the bites of the lice
- Pubic lice
- Burning during urination; discharge
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
- Inflammation of the fallopian tube
- Chlamydia & Gonorrhea
- Fetus implants & develops in the fallpian tube.
- Found above the waist. Below the waist
- Painful blisters
- Papilloma virus
- Cervical cancer
- It’s difficult to test for men, so they are just carriers.
- Prevent HPV
- Has 4 strains in the virus which is the most common and have the most likelihood to show symptoms
- Helper T cells
- No. Lots of different infections and helper T cells getting below a critical level
- Diversity within and between all living things on this planet at the level of populations, species and genetics
- Human value & survival,
- Spiritual religious & symbolic value,
- psychological value,
- intrinsic value and stewardship
What group of animals are the most common organisms on the planet?
What is a keystone species? Why might it be important to identify these species?
- Tropical Rain forests,
- coral reefs,
- Habitat loss
- Habitat loss
- 6 rate of extinction
Moved from one region to another that did not previously have the species
: taking too much from the earth, so we’re going to run out.
way food is grown and animals are raised cause this.
ex. clearcutting, habitat fragmentation loss, destroys land for cattle grazing, destroys rainforests.
What is the greenhouse effect?
- Greenhouse gasses that trap heat and warm the planet
- humans cause level of greenhouse gasses to rise.
- Natural process.
What greenhouse gas that is emitted by cows is contributing to climate change?
What kind of changes can we expect to see as a result of climate change and global warming? Would these changes continue even if we stopped all the activities contributing to them today?
- Weather patterns will change.
- Agriculture patterns with change
- Many species will go extinct
- Species distributions will change Health and disease will decline
- Many islands and shorelines will be under water Glaciers will retreat and polar ice caps will melt
- excessive, misdirected, or obtrusive artificial light.
- Humans & animals
- now killing/harming animals(including humans)/plants, polluting streams and
- destroying our pollinators which we depend on for so many foods
How important are pollinators for food security and ecosystems?
We would lose most of our produce.
which carries information within the central nervous system?
the myelin sheath helps to increase the rate of nerve impulse conduction. basically, it allows nerve impulses to travel more quickly.
group of chemicals that is released that transfers nervous information
space between axon & another cell where the neurotransmitter
meninges: 3 membranes that cover CNS and act as support
blood-brain barrier: barrier of tight capillary networks that only allows specific things to pass through
cerebrospinal fluid: completely covers spinal cord and brain between the skull and CNS, cushions and shock absorber
white matter=inside of brain but outside of spinal cord
white matter consists of axons that connect the bodies to other cells
name the 4 major regions of the brain as discussed in the powerpoint. name the common name of each and a general function of each. realize the brain is much more complicated!
Brain stem: known as the primitive brain, responsible for many reflexes
Cerebellulum: known as the little or hind brain, where balance and coordination are integrated
Limbic system: known as the emotional brain; where a lot of emotions, drives, and memories are such as thirst, hunger, sexual desire, fear, anger, love, etc.
Cerebrum: known as the higher thinking brain, where decisions are made and higher functioning such as sight, language, hearing, etc. makes up 85% of the brain’s weight
> herpes virus that lives in the nervous system after having chicken pox and become active again later in life
> depression, anxiety, ADD/ADHD
through what tube is it transferred from the kidney to the bladder?
Name the functions of the following: testes, epididymis, vas deferens and the urethra in reproduction.
Name the structures of the female reproductive system
What is nondisjunction? Sometimes nondisjunction happens to the sex chromosomes
Nondisjunction is when chromosomes do not divide properly in the making of new cells so some cells have too many chromosomes and some cells have too few.
3rd: reside and toxins left behind on anything smoke touches - furniture, carpet, clothes, hair, etc...
both are thought to be harmful
3. Defense - first line of defense to keep things out. Also white blood cells in skin to defend
4. Helps synthesize vitamin D - precursor to vit D made in skin when exposed to sunlight
5. Sensory receptor - gives info of world around us
-Waterproof (keratin in cells)
-Made up of mostly keratinocytes
-Contains melanocytes - produce melanin that gives skin color
-No blood vessels
- lends strength and flexibility to the skin
- contains many structures: glands, muscles, BLOOD vessels, nerves
- mostly adipose tissue
- anchors skin
- acts as cushion and insulator