Ecologists study all of the interactions among organisms, and between organisms and their environment (predation, disease, competition)
What do ecologists address?
They address many of the current environmental problems and try to solve them in scientific ways
Why is ecology important?
It shapes the current distribution (where they live) and abundance (number) of including those upon which we rely
An ant eats the fatty tissue outer layer of a seed. The seed can then germinate. What is this an example of?
A lion stalks a pack of zebras. What is this an example of?
Two male bucks charge each other with their antlers for the attention from a female. What is this an example of?
What is ecology?
The scientific study of the interactions among organisms, and between organisms and the non-living world (water, oxygen, climate)
Where does the word "ecology" come from?
Comes from the word "Oikos", which means "house"--Ecology is therefore the study of our house
What is an ecosystem?
A unit that defines all biology in question
Which of the following are ecosystems? Earth, Hawaii, Lake Michigan, an oak tree, a squirrel
All of them!
How are ecology and environmentalism related?
Ecology can address environmental issues, but it is not biased because it is based on hypotheses and data. Environmentalism is a political stance/opinon
What is genetics?
The science of heritable variation
What is evolution?
The results of ecological forces acting upon genetic variation
Ecology is the science of forces that act _________________
on heritable variation
What are biotic forces?
The forces that occur among organisms--living interactions: competition, predation, parasitism, mutualism...
What is mutualism?
What is predation?
What is competition?
What is amensalism?
What is commensalism?
What is neutralism?
What are abiotic forces?
They are forces in the non-living world that act on organisms--wind, precipitation, temperature, gravity, fire, flood...
What are the rate, timing, and magnitude of most biological events influenced by?
Temperature, precipitation, and day length---timing of breeding seasons, of flowering
What are biomes?
Large-scale biological regions that are determined largely by climate
What are some of the major climatic forces?
Angle of the sun (equator vs. poles) Hadley cells (alternating wet/dry areas) Tilt of the Earth (seasonal variation) Rotation of the Earth (Coriolis forces, air currents, ocean currents) Ocean conveyor belt (ocean currents)
What is the oceanic conveyor belt?
Moves cold/warm water--warm water is taking to northern Europe which is why is stays warmer than Canada
What biome has the highest annual mean precipitation and relatively high temperature?
What biome reaches the highest mean temperature and relatively low precipitation?
What biome has a high, relatively consistent annual mean temperature and the lowest amounts of precipitation?
What biome has the coldest annual mean temperature and relatively low precipitation levels?
Arctic and alpine tundra
What biome has a medium amount of precipitation and a lower mean temperature?
What biome has a medium amount of precipitation and a medium mean temperature?
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
What does species distribution mainly depend on?
Abiotic forces (and then evolutionary history, the dispersal of organisms, and biotic interactions)
How does topography affect the weather?
Topography (elevation) creates rain shadows where the western side of a mountain range receives water and the east side is often a desert
How do Coriolles forces affect topography?
Coriolles forces make weather come from west, so to the east there is little to no precipitation
What happens if the global climate changes?
Biomes would move, shrink, enlarge--it depends on climate and precipitation
What is the greenhouse effect?
The warming of the planet Earth due to atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide, which absorbs reflected infrared radiation and re-reflects some of it back to earth
What would happen without the greenhouse effect?
The Earth's surface would be -18 degrees Celsius and life would not exist
The polar ice caps are shrinking. What is estimated to happen?
Sea levels will rise, flooding a large portion of the current coastline and might cause a shift in precipitation patterns (killing agriculture) and some species might disperse different or die out
The earth is spherical(ish). What effect does this have on climate?
Sunlight directly hits the equator, so that is where the warmest climates are, and it climate cools as you move towards the poles
How many Hadley cells are there on Earth?
6--3 North of the equator and 3 South of the equator
What explains high levels of precipitation along the equator?
Hadley Cells--Air is heated by the strong sunlight which causes it to expand and rise. Warm air can hold a lot of moisture. As the air rises, it cools and its ability to hold moisture declines.
What explains the band of deserts in the vicinity of 30 degrees latitude north and south?
As more air is heated along the equator, the cooler air is pushed poleward and its density increases, making it sink. As it sinks, it absorbs more solar radiation and warms to hold moisture. Little rain occurs where that air returns to Earth's surface
What causes seasonality in weather?
Seasonality occurs because Earth is tiled on its axis by 23.5 degrees
Want to see the other 44 Flashcards in Hunter Lecture 3 FOR EXAM 1?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!