Essential Questions Was the North’s victory inevitable? Bc they had advantages in population and resources What were the reasons men fought in the Civil War? Soldiers wanted to be admired by the people at home, to do their part for their comrades, to bring the war to a quicker end and bc they grew to hate the enemy What problems did the Confederate govt. face during the war? In spring of 1863, poor women of Richmond broke open the stores of merchants accused of hoarding the precious staples. Confederate officers in the field forced reluctant farmers to accept whatever prices the army offered, in an increasingly worthless currency. Southern govt.t could not afford to lose civilian support and w/out a party mechanism to discipline those who spoke out against him, Jefferson Davis could not remove enemies from office. The govt. faced fundamental dilemma since the whole point of secession had been to move political power closer to localities, protecting slavery and self-determination. It had to centralize power. The armies were to be fed and clothed, if diplomats were to make a plausible case for the confederacy’s nationhood, if soldiers were to be mobilized, then the confederate govt. had to exercise greater power than its creators had expected/intended. Vicksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg? Vicksburg: A city of western Mississippi on bluffs above the Mississippi River west of Jackson. During the Civil War it was besieged from 1862 to 1863 and finally captured by troops led by Ulysses S. Grant on July 4, 1863. It became a symbol of Confederate doggedness and Union frustration and key to the Mississippi River controlling river traffic and rail cargo shipments to the East Chancellorsville: a major battle in the American Civil War (1863), the Confederates under Robert E. Lee defeated the Union forces under Joseph Hooker Gettysburg: accidental battle; Union general George Meade; south fails to uproot Union defenses; Pickett’s Charge lasted three days, bloodiest battle of the Civil War, Union won the battle, North won almost every battle after this battle, marked turnaround of the Civil War, Lee's biggest mistake/error Why did the draft riots happen? When mobs began assaulting graft officials, rich men, pro-Lincoln newspaper and abolitionists’ homes killing over 100 people including many blacks What were Lincoln’s plans for amnesty and reconstruction? Lincoln began preparing his plan for Reconstruction to reunify the North and South after the war’s end. Lincoln believed that the South had never legally seceded from the Union; his plan for Reconstruction was based on forgiveness. He thus issued the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction in 1863 to announce his intention to reunite the once-united states. Lincoln hoped that the proclamation would rally northern support for the war and persuade weary Confederate soldiers to surrender. What was different about Grant’s 1864 campaign? General Grant, promoted to commander of the Union armies, planned to engage Lee's forces in Virginia until they were destroyed. North and South met and fought in an inconclusive three-day battle in the Wilderness. Lee inflicted more casualties on the Union forces than his own army incurred, but unlike Grant, he had no replacements. The election of 1864? Lincoln got re-nominated in June. Republican Party tried to broaden its appeal to the democrats by nominating Andrew Johnson, former democrat from TN to VP. Democrats intended to take full advantage of such criticisms by nominating General George McClellan. He demonstrated that a person could oppose Lincoln’s political purposes of the war w/out being a coward or traitor. They would unseat Lincoln until Sherman swung around ATL and began destroying the railroads that made the small city important junction. Sheridan attacked the Confederates in Shenandoah Valley, destroying the valley’s ability to support Southern army again. Lincoln won 55% of popular vote. The March to the Sea? Union General William Sherman led his troops through Tennessee, Georgia, and South Carolina burning and destroying cities, farms, and railroads. General Grant and his Union troops chased Lee's troops through Virginia and destroyed the Confederate capital, Richmond, Virginia What were the consequences of the war? North lost almost 365,000 and 277,000 wounded, South lost 260,00 and 195,000 wounded, black Americans lost 37,000 in union army and 10,000 men women and children in contraband camps. They all struggled w/out male breadwinner. Southern slave-based economy collapsed. Major Southern cities had been reduced to ash, railroads had been ripped from the ground and fields had grown up in weeds and brush. Farm values fell by half, livestock, tools, barns, and fences had been stolen/destroyed by both sides of army. The Civil War did not mark a sudden turn in Northern economy but accelerate processes already well underway. Why was Johnson impeached? House Republicans, tired of presidential vetoes that blocked Military Reconstruction, impeached Johnson by a vote of 126–47 for violating the Tenure of Office Act. The Senate then tried Johnson in May 1868 in front of a gallery of spectators but the prosecutors, two Radical Republicans from the House, were unable to convince a majority of senators to convict the president. Seven Republican senators sided with Senate Democrats, and the Republicans fell one vote shy of convicting Johnson. What was Reconstruction? Lincoln’s intention to reunite the once-united states. Lincoln hoped that the proclamation would rally northern support for the war and persuade weary Confederate soldiers to surrender. To appeal to poorer whites, he offered to pardon all Confederates; to appeal to former plantation owners and southern aristocrats, he pledged to protect private property. Lincoln did not want to punish southerners or reorganize southern society. His actions indicate that he wanted Reconstruction to be a short process in which secessionist states could draft new constitutions as swiftly as possible so the US could exist as before Who were the carpetbaggers? The scalawags? Carpetbaggers: what white Southerners called and sneered at white Northerners who supported the Republican cause. Scalawags: white Southern Republicans were labeled by their enemies, risked being called traitors to their own race and region What was “radical reconstruction”? Congress passes First and Second Reconstruction Acts Congress passes Tenure of Office Act (1867); House of Representatives impeaches Andrew Johnson Senate acquits Johnson Fourteenth Amendment is ratified Ulysses S. Grant is elected president (1868); Fifteenth Amendment is ratified (1870) After sweeping the elections of 1866, the Radical Republicans gained almost complete control over policymaking in Congress. Along with their more moderate Republican allies, they gained control of the House of Representatives and the Senate and thus gained sufficient power to override any potential vetoes by President Andrew Johnson. This political ascension, which occurred in early 1867, marked the beginning of Radical Reconstruction Why did the North win the Civil War? had bigger numbers in the military and population (more soldiers), most immigrants went to the north, had 7x the manufacturing power so they could turn out more weapons and bullets, had a way better railroad system so they could transport goods faster and easily, had the navy (monopoly in shipping), industrialized economy, and neutrality of the European great powers North strategies: destroy anything and everything the south could use to win; Sherman captured the major rivers (Mississippi) control of river, control of south.