Vocab 15 13th Amendment: Constitutional amendment that abolished slavery Andersonville: Worst Confederate prisoner camp in the Civil War, located in Georgia. Disease killed hundreds of people every day Andrew Johnson: 17th president (1865-1869) after Lincoln?s death, Democrat, senator (TN), remained loyal to the Union, Lincoln's vice president in 1864 election, impeached. Appomattox: The small Virginia village that served as the site of surrender of Confederate forces under Robert E. Lee to Ulysses S. Grant on April 9, 1865, generally recognized as bringing the Civil War to an end. Battle of Atlanta: An important junction in the South that was destroyed by Confederates as Union troops approached. Chancellorsville: a major battle in the American Civil War (1863), the Confederates under Robert E. Lee defeated the Union forces under Joseph Hooker Chickamauga: a Confederate victory in the American Civil War (1863), Confederate forces under Braxton Bragg defeated Union forces; a creek meaning ?river of death? Ford's Theater: Where Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in 1865, Washington Fort Wagner: Scores of black troops died during a bold nighttime assault on Fort Wagner near Charleston, South Carolina. The Confederates made a point of burying the African American soldiers in a mass grave along with their white officer, Robert Gould Shaw, intending to insult him & his memory. Instead, they elevated him to a Northern martyr. Freedmen's Bureau: a federal agency created in 1865 to supervise freed people. Oversaw transactions between former slaves and whites and court system in the South, issued food rations and supervised labor contracts Gettysburg & Pickett's charge: Lasted three days, bloodiest battle of the Civil War, Union won the battle, North won almost every battle after this battle, marked turnaround of the Civil War, Lee's biggest mistake/error Gettysburg Address: A brief speech given by President Lincoln at the dedication of the Gettysburg Cemetery in November 1863 that declared that the Civil War was dedicated to freedom. Impeachment: a formal accusation of misconduct in office against a public official John Wilkes Booth: Actor, Southern sympathizer, assassinated Lincoln on April 14, 1865; killed by soldiers Joseph Hooker: US general in the Union Army who was defeated at Chancellorsville by Robert E. Lee (1814-1879) Ku Klux Klan: a secret society of white Southerners in the US formed in 19th cent. by Nathan Bedford in TN to resist the emancipation of slaves and maintain white supremacy; used terrorist tactics to suppress Black people; became in effect a military wing of Democratic party devoting much energy to warning and killing white/black men who dared associate w/Republicans or supported black rights Reconstruction Act: It divided the South into 5 military districts, each commanded by a union general and policed by Union soldiers. It also required that states wishing to be re-admitted into the Union had to ratify the 14th Amendment, and that states' constitutions had to allow former adult male slaves to vote. Thaddeus Stevens: Man behind the 14th Amendment, which ends slavery. Stevens and President Johnson were absolutely opposed to each other (Radical Republican); called for land to be seized from wealthy planters and given to former slaves The black codes: southern states passed strict laws to keep blacks from gaining rights during Reconstruction (the right to marry, hold property, to sue and be sued) The Draft Riots (New York): Mobs began assaulting draft officials, and then turned their anger on any man who looked rich enough to have hired a substitute, then on pro-Lincoln newspapers and abolitionists' homes. They assaulted any African Americans they encountered on the streets, burning an orphanage, whipping men & women, and hanging victims from city lampposts, killing over 100 people The March to the Sea: Union General William Sherman led his troops through Tennessee, Georgia, and South Carolina burning and destroying cities, farms, and railroads. General Grant and his Union troops chased Lee's troops through Virginia and destroyed the Confederate capital, Richmond, Virginia Ulysses Grant: 18th President (1869?1877), commander of the Union armies in the American Civil War (1822-1885) Vicksburg: A city of western Mississippi on bluffs above the Mississippi River west of Jackson. During the Civil War it was besieged from 1862 to 1863 and finally captured by troops led by Ulysses S. Grant on July 4, 1863. It became a symbol of Confederate doggedness and Union frustration and key to the Mississippi River controlling river traffic and rail cargo shipments to the East William T. Sherman: General in the Union army; victorious at Chattanooga, Atlanta, Savannah; issued Special Field Order no. 15.
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