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Indiana Wesleyan University
Science Bio 111
I lung you <3
I lung you <3
Science Bio 111
Indiana Wesleyan University
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Human Anatomy and Physiology with Interactive Physiology 10-System Suite, 8th Edition
what are the first 2 step of Inspiration?
1. The inspiratory muscles contract (diaphragm descends; rib cage rises).
2. Thoracic cavity volume INCREASES
What occurs during the next 2 steps?
3. Lungs are stretched causing intrapulmonary Volume to increase
4. Intrapulmonary Pressure decreases to -1 mm Hg
What is the last step of Inspiration?
Air (gases) flow into the lungs, down its pressure gradient, until intrapulmonary pressure = 0 (the same as atmospheric pressure)
T/F- Diaphragm moves superiorly during contraction.
False, it moves inferior during contraction
What are the first 2 steps of expiration?
1. Inspiratory muscles relax (diaphragm RISES, rib cage DESCENDS due to recoil of costal cartilages).
2. Thoracic cavity volume DECREASES
What are the next 2 steps of Expiration?
3. Elastic lungs recoil passively; intrapulmonary Volume DECREASES
4. Intrapulmonary Pressure rises to +1 mm Hg
Describe the last step of Expiration
Air (gases) flows out of lungs down its pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure is 0.
The diaphragm moves (superiorly or inferiorly) during expiration
Where is airway resistance greatest?
In the medium sized bronchi
List 5 things that resistance is affected by:
As resistance increases, flow ____________.
F (Gas flow) = Change in pressure divided by ________.
What is the major component of Alveolar coating?
In alveolar coating, polar molecules are drawn close together to resist any force that causes them to spread. This cohesiveness is called _____________ ____________.
What do Type II Alveolar cells produce to reduce surface tension?
Produce Surfactant (lipid & protein mixture)
Why is surfactant important?
-It requires less energy to expand lungs
-Avoids alveolar collapse
What can be caused if there is too little surfactant?
Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome (IRDS)
What are respiratory volumes measured with?
What is the formula for total lung capacity & Vital capacity?
Total lung Capacity: (TLC) = TV + IRV + ERV + RV
Vital Capacity: (VC) = TV + IRV + ERV
TV= tidal volume IRV= Inspiratory reserve volume ERV= Expiratory reserve volume RV= Residual volume
What is an average male's total lung capacity? Vital Capacity?
Total lung Capacity: 6000 ml
Vital Capacity: 4800 ml
What is the formula for the Inspiratory Capacity? Functional Residual Capacity?
Inspiratory Capacity: (IC)= TV + IRV
Functional Residual Capacity: (FRC)= ERV + RV
What is dead space? What is an average amount for it?
The volume that doesn't participate in gas exchange in the alveoli
Also called anatomical dead space
-About 150 ml
What are 3 things that you can do using a spirometer:
1. Evaluate losses in function
2. Follow course of the disease
3. Differentiate between obstructive & restrictive lung diseases
What is one drawback of using a spirometer?
It doesn't provide specific diagnosis
Obstructive pulmonary disorder causes (increased or decreased) airway resistance. What is the best example of this?
Increased airway resistance
Best example: Emphysema
Give 2 examples of Increased airway resistance besides emphysema.
Chronic bronchitis and asthma
Obstructive Pulmonary Disease may cause increase in...
Inflation, Total lung capacity, Functional Residual Capacity, and Residual Volume
(TLC, FRC, RV)
Restrictive Pulmonary Disorders cause a reduction in what?
Reduction in total lung capacity
What causes Restrictive Pulmonary disorders?
Structural or functional changes in the lungs due to diseases such as tuberculosis or fibrosis from insults.
Restrictive pulmonary disorders may cause reduction of:
Lung expansion, Vital Capacity, Functional Residual Capacity, Total lung capacity, and Residual volume.
(VC, TLC, FRC, RV)
What does FVC stand for and how is it measured?
Forced Vital Capacity-
Take a deep breath, then forcibly exhale maximally as rapidly as possible
What does FEV stand for and what does it determine?
Forced Expiratory Volume
determines the amount of air expelled during specific time intervals of the FVC test
Compare the normal % of FVC1 to that of a person with a restrictive or an obstructive pulmonary disorder
Normal, healthy- 80% of FVC
-Obstructive: low FEV
-Restrictive: low FVC
Is the alveolar Ventilation Rate (AVR) more/less accurate index of ventilation than minute ventilation?
AVR is a more accurate index
What are the calculations to determine the AVR?
AVR (ml/min)= frequency (breaths/minute) X (TV-dead space, in ml/breath)
What is the AVR in a normal, healthy person?
When the volume (depth) of inspiration increases, what happens to the AVR?
The AVR increases
According to Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure-The total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases = ?
The sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture
According to Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure- Pressure exerted by each gas (its partial pressure) is directly proportional to what?
To its percentage in the total gas mixture
According to Henry's law- When mixture of gas is in contact with liquid, what will the gas do?
The gas will dissolve in liquid in proportion to its partial pressure
What does the ability of gas to dissolve in liquid depend on?
It depends on the solubility of gas in liquid and temperature of the liquid
T/F- A Hyperbaric oxygen chamber forces less than normal amounts of oxygen into the patient's blood.
False, It forces greater than normal amounts of oxygen into patient's blood
Oxygen is only ________ as soluble as CO2 in water (plasma).
T/F- Alveolar gas contains more CO2 and much less 02 then the atmosphere
Describe the gas exchange that occurs in the lungs
CO2 from pulmonary blood --> aveoli
O2 from alveoli --> pulmonary blood
T/F- Increasing depth and rate of breathing changes alveolar gas compisition
What are the factors influencing gas exchange across the respiratory membrane?
1. Partial pressure gradients and gas solubilities
2. Ventilation-perfusion coupling
3. Thin Respiratory Membrane
4. Large alveolar surface area
When ventilation is inadequate, what occurs?
-Redirects blood to area where Po2 is higher
Passageways where CO2 is high causes what?
Causes dilation to eliminate CO2 rapidly
What does a thin respiratory membrane improve?
Improves the efficiency of gas exchange
Why is a large alveolar surface area important?
It has 40x greater
Where would one find a reduced alveolar surface area?
Emphysema, tumors, mucus, inflammatory material
Po2 in tissues is always (lower OR higher) than that in systemic arterial blood
It is always lower
How does CO2 move into the blood?
It moves quickly along its partial pressure gradient
What is the partial pressure of O2 & CO2 from inspired air?
PO2 = 160 mm Hg
PCO2 = 0.3 mm Hg
What is the Partial pressure of O2 and CO2 in the Alveoli of the lungs?
PO2 = 104 mm Hg
PCO2 = 40 mm HG
What is the partial pressure of O2 and CO2 in blood leaving the tissues & entering the lungs?
P02 = 40 mm Hg
PCO2 = 45 mm Hg
What is the partial pressure of O2 and CO2 in blood leaving the lungs and entering the tissue cappilaries?
P02 = 100 mm Hg
PCO2 = 40 mm Hg
What is the partial pressure of O2 and CO2 in the tissues?
PO2 = less than 40 mm Hg
PCO2 = greater than 45 mm Hg
T/F- Oxygen is extremely soluble in water
False, it is poorly soluble in water
What % of Oxygen does hemoglobin carry?
Hemoglobin Provides rapid, reversible oxygen loading & unloading, what is the formula that shows this?
HHb + O2 -----> HbO2 + H+
HHb= Hemoglobin that has released oxygen, deoxyhemoglobin
HbO2= Hemoglobin combined with oxygen, oxyhemoglobin
The reaction between hemoglobin & oxygen is what kind of (forward/backward) reaction in the lungs? In the tissues?
In the lungs = forward reaction
In the tissues = reverse reaction
T/F- The affinity of hemoglobin changes depending on the state of oxygen saturation.
What does the Oxygen-Hemoglobin dissociation curve show?
It shows the influence of P02 on HB saturation
At what PO2 is Hemoglobin almost completely saturated at?
70 mm Hg
What does the steep portion of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve correspond to?
The rapid loading and unloading at partial pressures
What % of Oxygen is unloaded to the tissues?
What are 2 influences on Hb Saturation?
-Increase in temperature
-[H+] in blood
What are 3 effects of an increase in temperature & [H+] in the blood?
1. Decreases HB's affinity for O2
2. The O2-hemoglobin-dissosiation curve shifts to the RIGHT
3. Enhances O2 unloading from the blood
* these are at their highest in the systemic cappilaries
What is the effect of Pco2 on the Oxygen-Hemoglobin dissociation curve?
Decreased Pco2 = shifts to the left
Increased Co2 = shifts to the right
What is the effect of temperature on the Oxygen-Hemoglobin dissociation curve?
Decreased temp = shifts to the left, increased pH
Increased temp = shifts to the right, decreases pH
Inadequate oxygen delivery to the tissues
Give 4 examples of Hypoxia:
Anemic hypoxia: poor O2 delivery from too few RBCs or RBCS that contain abnormal or too little HB
Ischemic (stagnant) hypoxia:
What caused Anemic Hypoxia?
Poor O2 delivery from too few RBCs or RBCS that contain abnormal or too little HB
What causes Ischemic (stagnant) hypoxia?
Results when blood circulation is impaired or blocked
When does Histotoxic hypoxia occur and what causes it?
Occurs when body cells cannot use 02 even when adequate amounts are available. Caused by metabolic poisons, such as cyanide
What causes Carbon Monoxide poisoning?
Being in a fire
it is a colorless, odorless gas that overcomes O2.
What is an example of Hypoxemic (hypoxic): Hypoxia?
Carbon monoxide poisoning
What % of carbon dioxide is dissolved in plasma?
7-10% of Co2
During Co2 transport, Co2 is chemically bound to the amino acids of ___________
20% of transported CO2 is carried within RBCs as ________________.
T/F- The transport of CO2 often interferes with Oxygen binding to heme.
False- it does not interfere
________ % of CO2 is transported as bicarbonate ion in the _____________.
7-% of Co2, in the plasma
Study diagram on slide 48 & 49
What is the purpose of the Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system?
Resists shifts in blood pH
What are the effects of slow/shallow breathing & fast/deep breathing on the Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system?
Slow/shallow breathing: INCREASES carbonic acid level, DROPS pH
fast/deep breathing: DROPS carbonic acid level, INCREASES pH
What formula shows the influence of CO2 on blood pH
Co2+ H20 <------> H2CO3 <------------> H++HCO3-
carbonic acid bicarbonate ion
slide 50 for clarification
What is in charge of the neural control of respiration? What group is it a part of?
Part of the Ventral respiratory Group (VRG)
What are the functions of the Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG) vs. the Dorsal Respiratory Group (DRG)
VRG: Pacesetting respiratory center, keeps 12-15 breaths/minute, keeps eupnea (good breathing!)
DRG: Integrates input from peripheral stretch & chemoreceptors
What are the 3 main factors influencing the rate & depth of Breath
2. Higher Brain Center
3. Chemical controls
What is the function of the Hering-Breuer Reflex
Works against inflation, protective to prevent excess stretch
What controls in the higher brain center most influence the rate & depth of breath?
What are the 3 main chemical controls that influence the rate & depth of breath?
Pco2= the most powerful respiratory stimulant/suppressant
Increased Pco2 = _____________. This causes pH to rise/drop
Hypercapnia = causes pH to drop
Hypercapnia stimulates _________ __________,which triggers ________.
Stimulates central chemoreceptors, triggers hyperventilation
Decreased Pco2 triggers __________ & _________________.
Apnea & hypoventilation
What is chronic bronchitis caused by & what does it cause?
Caused by: excessive mucus production
Causes: Obstructed airways
What are the effects of Emphysema?
-Accessory muscles are needed to help breath
-Hyperinflation creates "barrel chest"
COPD treatment ?
How many people in the US suffer from asthma? What are some of the symptoms?
15 million in the US
-episodes of coughing, dyspnea, wheezing, chest tightness, & airway inflammation
What are the 2 main treatments of Asthma?
Airway inflammation is an immune respinse by ________________, it stimulates _____ ______________, and triggers ________________.
Immune response by T lymphocytes, stimulates IgE production, and triggers allergens from home
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