Chinese tradition, beginning prior to the Qing dynasty, involving break of a woman’s foot and bandaging it for long lengths so it would not grow normal. Small feet were an indications of beauty and also kept women subordinate to men (cripple them for life, constant pain), by limiting them to household. Qing dynasty attempted to end this, but with no success, one thing not adopted by Manchu.
Effort by Europeans (British gov) to establish trade both ways with china (as limited to trading in Guangzhou) but emperor still agrees to meet with him. Macartney shows what have to offer, but emperor not interested. Writes letter expressing disinterest. Show one country can stand up and resist European soldiers
Revolt by the Indian soldiers (sepoys, working for British) against British control. Occurred because ammunition packaged in cow and pig fat (sacred Muslim and Hindu animals). British able to suppress and as a result gained direct control of India. Lead to more resentment, Nationalism, and the Indian Independence Movement.
Wars between Chinese and British over Britain’s selling of opium to China to regain control of trade. Unfortunately, British able to dominate and force its control on china. Led to “unfair treaties” and decline of china’s economy during the Qing dynasty. Example of another country standing up to Europe (punished).
Alternate Attendance system
System established by Tokugawa rules of Japan system to prevent revolt or dishonesty by their daimyo feudal lords. Require them to attend shogunal court every other year and to leave their wives and children at the shogunal court when they are away.
“Rich County, Strong Military”
Belief and slogan of the Japanese government during Japan’s attempt to become equal to European and American powers to end their control of Japan. Slogan stated that if Japan was able to build economy back up (industrialize), could build up military strength (technology rise), help Japanese gain strength to review the unequal treaties place upon them
First president of Mexico following independence from Spain, under the Reforma, demonstrated that democratic measure not working property when served as president for 35 years, winning every election. Also garnered more power than any other elected official in the world. Industrialized Mexico, welcoming foreign businesses. Though this improved the state of the economy and Diaz’s wallet, left citizens and elites unhappy. Led to his overthrowing. And revolution
The Mexican Revolution:
The revolt/revaluation of the lower class when the elites overthrew Porfirio Diaz. Were inspired to rise above, led by Zapata. Aim to bring more power to the civilians. Stopped by elites, but things change to prevent future rebellions (citizens made some gains).
Stretch of land belonging to Colombia, American formed interest from incident involving the Suez Canal, wished to gain the land. As could not match price with American, Americans look for alternative ways to gain it; Significant because to get it American helped Colombia gin its independence (and thus it owe the land to America).
Congress of Vienna
Peace conference after napoleon’s defeat between many countries, meant to return area to conservation (prerevolutionary) values and ways, lowering common citizens to less powerful statuses. Reinstated France’s old rules and follow the theory of the balance of power, thus to prevent France from attacking other countries, redistributed land more equally, aim to maintain stability between the countries.
10,000 St Petersburg citizens met to protest against their government and military. Emperor decided to surround to contain the crowd, massacre led to demonstration and eventually formation of Parliament in Russia to give citizens power to stop unrest
The Balkan crisis
After working together to remove the Turks, Serbia felt it needed its fair share. When Bulgaria refused, other countries turned against Bulgaria. Finally, the Bulgarians forfeited most of its gains. Increase tension between alliances as they had mixed Balkan allies, causing alliance reaction in all flair ups.
Hallmark of WWI, dug due to constant attack, allowed side to take more ground level for fighting positions, kept troops safe from weapons, series of trenches to stop penetration, intention of wearing down and capturing enemy, when ready sent troops over trenches, difficult to get across the land,. Barbed wife, if made it through forced into hand to hand combat. If take one trench, must climb into next. No indication if will live or die in war, anyone can die at any time.
Treaty of Versailles
Peace treaty to conclude WWI stalemate, in favor of British and French. Wrote as thought they won. Blamed war on Germany. Stated wars in 20th century because 1) Germany likes to invade others, attempt to severely decrease Germany ability to wage war. Reduce land, less population and resources. Economic war-guilt clause forced all of responsibility on Germany, therefore required to pay all entante powers for full costs of war and control of military, no more than 100,000 men army, no airfare, no subs, and limited surfacing navy ships 2) nationalism restrictions, if try to suppress nationalism, people will fight for it, so give it to them. Separate Austria-Hungary, Poland back, really just kept peace for next 20 years until next big crisis
The Armenian genocide
Turk nationalist very unhappy non-Turks on Turkish soil marched them into Russia, weakest of European. Marched until died (no food or water or rest), those that survived expected to live in area like concentration camps in the middle of nowhere, just sit there, Foreshadowed WWII treatment
The Balfour declaration
Ambiguous letter sent to Zionists in regards to their desire for nation on native land. And Palestine’s wish to remove Zionists. Both thought support but said supported “national” home for Jewish, without getting in Palestinians way—impossible. This ambiguity did kept peace for 20 years until WWII
The “Long March”
Chinese gov under Jiang Jieshu felt had to remove communists to prevent decline. Made communists travel over 1,000 of china, left with 100,000 communities, 90,000 perished. Significant because changed political ideology in China. Honored those who made the journey and that they stayed together for political ideology, led gov to turn to more important issues.
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