Last Modified: 2011-06-09
Related Textbooks:Western Civilization: Volume II: Since 1500 (Western Civilization to 1500)
-League of Nations had tests in which they did nothing:
1. Big one is Hitler, who took Rhineland in 1936 and 1938 annexes Austria, neither initiated response
2. Neville Chmberlain believed that if German states would unify their needs of expansion would be satisfied, so gave them Sudetenland
a nineteenth–century intellectual and artistic movement that rejected the emphasis on reason of the Enlightenment. Instead, Romantics stressed the importance of intuition, feeling, emotion, and imagination as sources of knowing.
· Rural agriculture movements in rural England
· Upset against low wages destroyed threshing machines and competition for rates
· Movement had imaginary leader whose name was chosen as Captain Swing.
o Developed theme of modern capitalism and shopping habits of women
o Head of department store comes up with various tricks and methods to get women to buy more products. Used advertisements, food at the store, bargains, create environment for children, etc.
o Try to make the largest profit, strong have the power to make money.
· “Bon Marshe” name of department store, created in 1880
· Vast range of goods in one place at a lower price
John Stuart Mill:
Wrote “On Liberty”, "On the Subjection of Women", supporters of women’s rights and liberty
· Public discontent with Niccholas the II and failures of World War I
· February 23rd, international women’s day, reach boiling point when woman marched. Strike reached 30,000, czar gives up power
· Provisional Government and Soviets gain power
· Between general Kitchner of Anglo-Egyptian army vs Sudanese rebels
· Sudanese rebels stormed the capital and took over the city
· General Kitchner brought army to retake city and massacred the rebels with modern weapons such as machine guns
· During the age of imperialism and scramble for Africa.
· Not a major battle, but first time that the British use new style of warfare in Africa to obliterate troops. International significance.
· Come up in 1919
· By end of 1930s about 3.6 mil people put in them, not justified
· Camps were in isolated areas, existed in other socialist countries as well
· Changed on circumstances on country, little food, no insulation.
· Important part of Stalinist economic structure (force labor in replace of machinery)
· Emergence of liberal com govs in Czech
· Slovak Dubcek was a socialist who encouraged freedom and less censorship
· Inspired students to demonstrate in Poland and Yugoslovia
· COmms felt threatened by his reforms.
· Came in and crushed his revolution.
· 1968, Soviets send troops to Prague and crush revolution.
· Perestroika means reconstruction
o Change to market economy
· Glasnot means openness
o Stop censorship
· Policies ultimately failed, led to unpopularity of Gorbachev
· Founded the women’s social and political union in 1903 which called for militancy and action to gain female suffrage in Britian
· British suppressed peaceful demonstration, calls for hunger strike
· Claimed women are not super human or sub human but should have same voting rights as men
· Gave speech “Why We are Militant” in 1913
· Had power to regulate their prices
· Created common market by eliminating tarrifs and trade barriers
· United economies of Western Europe.
Spanish civil war
· Fascism under Francisco Franco
· Weak republic government gets defeated by militaristic right
· All of world watches, France and Brit support republicans, Hitler and Muss support Franco
· Franco wins gains compelte control of Spain.
Treaty of Brest Litovsk
- Seperate peace between Germany and Bl=olshevik regime in Russia
· Made them give up significant area of Russia, Russia withdraws from the war
· Support democracy worldwide and fight communism
· 1947-Harry Truman makes speech to congress
· Greece is an example of this, 1948?
· Theory that was created by Mussllini
· Starts on oct 28th of 1922 when black shirts march on capital in Italy
· People tired of Italy’s democratic failure
· Mussolini closed down parliamentary gov, abolished cabinet policy, and appoints himself prime minister and leader of Italy
· Gov controls police, press, and academics
· Restored traditional authority and mobilized society.
· Takes place in Italy, Germany, Central Europe, Spain, Japan, France
Cult of domesticity
· Duties to educate and instill morals in children
· More religious than men
· Arose again in 20th century after the first feminist movement (ie I Love Lucy, etc).
· Most women were upper middle class who held onto this
· Encouraged women to be much more passive
· Huge in Victorian Britain, differentiated upper class women from lower working class women
· Tito and his communist troupes formed a strong guerrilla army and fought Germans, Italians, and Croat fascists.
- After the war, Tito gained much support in Yugoslavia due to his military record, and challenged the USSR to become an independent government from Moscow. USSR expelled the country afterwards. Yugoslavia falls apart after his death.
· Believed that change most be slow and managed to structure authority
· Edmund Burke’s writings was a point of reference.
· 19th century, began in 1790’s (think French Revolution).
o Conservatism as a reaction to the French Revolution
· Preserved order and legitimacy to the thrown
· Discuss Jewish issue
· Chief executer of final solution made Reinhard Heydrich
· Import Jes from all over to go and work in work camps mainly for transportation purposes
· Worked to death and then all killed at the end
· Plan failed due to soviet moves.
Second Industrial revolution:
· Dubbed the technological revolution
· Advanced in steel, electric, and chemistry industries
· Led to internal combustion engine, lightbulbs, generators
· Boomed economy in Europe.
· Population increases and consumption increases occurred as a result
o Department stores
· Growth of the working class
· Automobiles arise, trains become much more widespread, mass production of food.
· Main act of Stalin to achieve total doctoral power
· Eliminated all of his enemies, both social and politcals, anyone who was political, anyone who ran economics, certain races
· Economy was changed, took private lands and made them public, “collectivism.”
· Over 1 mil die, 1 mil and a half go to work camps.
· Social adaptation of theory of natural selection
o Explained speciation and populations as outcome of competition
· Refers to ideas that predate Darwins publication
· Herbert Spencer
o Comes up with phrase “survival of the fittest”
· Application of Darwinian thought to society, much more simply, rationalizes things like imperialism and nationalism.
· Justifies ill treatment of poor.
· US drops nuc on Aug 6th 1945
· War in Europe is over but Japan will not accept defeat
· Tokyo fire bombed before
White Man’s Burden:
· Rubert Kipling in 1899 in response to Spanish-American war.
o Civilizing mission of British
o Wrote long poem that the white mans burden is to bring up lesser societies.
o Refers to other societies as “half-devil half-child.”
o British, raised in India.
· Turning point in the war, first substantial german land defeat
· Bloodiest battle ever, 2 mil casualties
· Germany held 90 % at times but were unable to force them fully out.
· Able to trap Germans in city, cold winter comes along and slowly takes its toll
· Because city was transport route it would have severed transportation to the North.
· Dramatically reduced time and work to produce thread and yarn. 16 fld reproduction of thread
· Revolutionized British textile industry
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