A secondary school that focused on the practical needs of colonial America as a growing nation.
A process of socializing people so that they adopt dominant social norms and patterns of behavior.
An approach to developing morality that suggests moral values & positive character traits, such as honesty & citizenship, should be emphasized, taught, & rewarded.
Compensatory education programs
Government attempts to create more equal educational opportunities for disadvantaged youth.
Ex: Head Start & Title I
Comprehensive high school
A secondary school that attempts to meet the needs of all students by housing them together & providing curricular options (e.g., vocational or college-preparatory programs) geared toward a variety of student ability levels & interests.
English classical school
A free secondary school designed to meet the needs of boys planning to attend college.
A federal compensatory education program designed to help 3-to 5-year old disadvantaged children enter school ready to learn.
Junior High Schools
Schools that were originally designed in the early 1900s to provide a unique curriculum for early adolescent youth
Latin grammar school
A college-preparatory school originally designed to help boys prepare for the ministry or, later, for a career in law.
Public schools that provide innovative or specialized programs that attempt to attract students from all parts of a district.
Two-year institutions developed in the early 1800s to prepare prospective elementary teachers.
Old Deluder Satan Act
Early colonial law designed to create scripture-literature citizens who would thwart Satan's trickery.
Separate but equal
A policy of segregating minorities in education, transportation, housing, & other areas of public life if opportunities & facilities were considered equal to those of nonminorities. In education, the policy was evidenced by separate schools with different curricula, teaching methods, teachers, & resources.
A federal compensatory education program that funds supplemental education services for low-income students in elementary & secondary schools.
Checks or written documents that parents can use to purchase educational services
War on Poverty
A general term for federal programs designed to eradicate poverty during the 1960s.
Any variety of procedures used to obtain information about student performance. Includes traditional paper-and-pencil tests as well as extended responses (e.g. essays), performances of authentic tasks (e.g., laboratory experiments), teacher observations, and student self-report. Assessment answers the question:"How well does the individual perform?"
An instrument or systematic procedure for measuring a sample of behavior by posing a set of questions in a uniform manner. B/c a test is a form of assessment, tests also answer the question: "How well does the individual perform-either in comparison with others or in comparison with a domain of performance tasks?"
The process of obtaining a numerical description of the degree to which an individual possesses a particular characteristic. Measurement answers the question: "How much?"
Measures of maximum performance
Procedures used to determine a person's developed abilities or achievements. Procedures of this type are concerned w/ how well individuals perform when they are motivated to obtain as high a score as possible. Ex: Aptitude & achievement tests
Designed primarily to predict success in some future learning activity
Designed to indicate degree of success in some past learning activity.
Measures of typical performance
Designed to reflect a person's typical behavior. Procedures of this type are concerned w/ what individuals will do rather than what they can do.Ex: Methods designed to assess interests, attitudes, adjustment, & various personality traits.
To determine student performance at the beginning of instruction
1. To monitor learning progress during instruction 2.Evaluations designed to determine whether additional instruction is needed.
To diagnose learning difficulties during instruction
Assessments of student's ability to perform tasks in real-life contexts, not only to show knowledge. Also called authentic assessments.
1. To assess achievement at the end of instruction
2. Final evaluations of student's achievement of an objective
interpretation describes the performance in terms of the relative position held in some known group (e.g. typed better than 90% of the class members) i.e. assessments that compare the performance of one student against the performance of others
1. interpretation describes the specific performance that was demonstrated (e.g., typed 40 wpm w/o error) ex: objective referenced
2. Assessments that rate how thoroughly students have mastered specific skills or areas of knowledge.
A free appropriate public education (FAPE)
All children, regardless of the severity of their disability (a “zero reject” philosophy), must be provided with an education appropriate to their unique needs at no cost to the parent(s)/guardian(s). Included in this principle is the concept of related services, which requires that children receive, for example, occupational therapy as well as other services as necessary in order to benefit from special education.
The least restrictive environment (LRE)
Children with disabilities are to be educated, to the maximum extent appropriate, with students without disabilities. Placements must be consistent with the pupil's educational needs.
An individualized education program (IEP)
This document, developed in conjunction with the parent(s)/guardian(s), is an individually tailored statement describing an educational plan for each learner with exceptionalities. The IEP, which will be fully discussed later in this chapter, is required to address (1) the present level of academic functioning (commonly referred to by school personnel as present level of performance); (2) annual goals and accompanying instructional objectives; (3) educational services to be provided; (4) the degree to which the pupil will be able to participate in general education programs; (5) plans for initiating services and length of service delivery; and (6) an annual evaluation procedure specifying objective criteria to determine if instructional objectives are being met. Many teachers and school administrators refer to this as progress monitoring.
Procedural due process
The act affords parent(s)/guardian(s) several safeguards as it pertains to their child's education. Briefly, parent(s)/guardian(s) have the right to confidentiality of records; to examine all records; to obtain an independent evaluation; to receive written notification (in parents’ native language) of proposed changes to their child's educational classification or placement; and to an impartial hearing whenever disagreements arise regarding educational plans for their son/daughter. Furthermore, the student's parent(s)/guardian(s) have the right to representation by legal counsel.
Prior to placement, a child must be evaluated by a multidisciplinary team in all areas of suspected disability by tests that are neither racially or culturally nor linguistically biased. Students are to receive several types of assessments, administered by trained personnel; a single evaluation procedure is not permitted for either planning or placement purposes.
PL 94–142 mandates meaningful parent involvement. Sometimes referred to as the “Parent's Law,” this legislation requires that parents participate fully in the decision-making process that affects their child's education.
A set of moral standards for acceptable professional behavior
The process by which a state evaluates the credentials of prospective teachers to ensure that they have achieved satisfactory levels of teaching competence and are morally fit to work with youth.
A legal employment agreement between a teacher and a local school board.
Process that occurs when a local chapter of a professional organization negotiates with a school district over the rights of the teachers & the conditions of employment.
A formal complaint against an employer alleging unsatisfactory working conditions.
A legal safeguard that provides job security by preventing teacher dismissal without cause.
Reduction in force
The elimination of teaching positions b/c of declining student enrollment or school funds. AKA "riffing".
The right of teachers to choose both content & teaching methods based on their professional judgment.
Federal laws designed to protect the intellectual property of authors, including printed matter, videos, computer software, & various other types of original work.
Policies that specify limitations in the use of copyrighted materials for educational purposes
In loco parentis
A principle meaning "in place of the parents" that requires teachers to use the same judgment & care as parents in protecting the children under their supervision
A teacher's or other school employee's failure to exercise sufficient care in protecting students from injury.
The extent to which a teacher's behavior becomes known & controversial.
The clause of the First Amendment that prohibits the establishment of a national religion.
Free exercise clause
The clause of the First Amendment that prohibits the government from interfering with individuals' rights to hold religious beliefs and freely practice religion.
A federal act that makes school records open & accessible to students & their parents.
A collection of policies & procedures designed to overcome past racial, ethnic, gender, & disability discrimination. Was one outcome of the civil rights movement of the 1960s.
A statement of skills or concepts that students should master after a given period of instruction.
Breaking tasks down into fundamental subskills.
Planning instruction by first setting long-range goals, then setting unit objectives, & finally planning daily lessons.
A measure of the degree to which instructional objectives have been attained.
Clear statements of what students are intended to learn through instruction.
Specific behaviors students are expected to exhibit at the end of a series of lessons.
taxonomy of educational objectives
Benjamin Bloom's ordering of objectives from simple learning tasks to more complex ones.
Bloom's taxonomy for the cognitive domain are (from simple to complex)
1.Knowledge (Recalling information)
The lowest level of objectives in Bloom's hierarchy, knowledge refers to objectives such as memorizing math facts or formulas, scientific principles, or verb conjugations.
2. Comprehension (translating, interpreting, or extrapolating information)
Comprehension objectives require that students show an understanding of information as well as the ability to use it. Examples include interpreting the meaning of a diagram, graph, or parable; inferring the principle underlying a science experiment; and predicting what might happen next in a story.
3.Application (using principles or abstractions to solve novel or real-life problems)
Application objectives require students to use knowledge or principles to solve practical problems. Examples include geometric principles to figure out how many gallons of water to put into a swimming pool of a given dimensions & using knowledge of the relationship b/w temperature & pressure to explain why a balloon is larger on a hot day than on a cold day.
4. Analysis (breaking down complex information/ideas into simpler parts to understand how the parts relate or are organized)
Analysis objectives involve having students see the underlying structure of complex information or ideas. Examples of analysis objectives include contrasting schooling in the US w/ education in Japan, understanding how the functions of the carburetor & distributor are related in an automobile engine, & identifying the main idea of a short story.
5. Synthesis (creation of something that did not exist before)
Synthesis objectives involve using skills to create completely new products.Examples include writing a composition, deriving a mathematical rule, designing a science experiment to solve a problem, & making up a new sentence in a foreign language.
6. Evaluation (judging something against a given standard)
Evaluation objectives require making value judgments against some criterion or standard. For example, students might be asked to compare the strengths & weaknesses of two home computers in terms of flexibility, power, & available software.
Behavior content matrix
A chart that classifies lesson objectives according to cognitive level.
objectives that have to do with student attitudes & values
Measurement of student performance in academic and, sometimes, other areas; used to determine appropriate teaching strategies
table of specifications
A list of instructional objectives & expected levels of understanding that guides test development.
Test items in which respondents can select from one or more possible answers, w/o requiring the scorer to interpret their response.
Test items that usually consist of a stem followed by choices or alternatives.
A question or partial statement in a test item that is completed by one of several choices.
Incorrect responses that are offered as alternative answers to a multiple-choice question.
Features that make a choice stand out in multiple-choice questions
Test that calls for organizing, selecting, & applying complex procedures that have at least several important steps or components.
Bias due to carryover of a general attitude about a respondent, as when a teacher knows which student wrote which response and alters the grading depending on his/her opinion of the student.
Statements describing strong & weak features of a response to an item, a question, or a project.
relative grading standard
Grades given according to a student's rank in his/her class or grade.
Grading requiring an established standard of mastery, such as 80 or 90 percent correct on a test. Students who do not achieve it the first time may receive corrective instruction & then retake the test to try to achieve mastery.
multifactor aptitude battery
A test that predicts ability to learn a variety of specific skills & types of knowledge.
Standardized tests that include several subtests designed to measure knowledge of particular subjects.
Test of specific skills used to identify student's needs & to guide instruction.
The score designated as the minimum necessary to demonstrate mastery of a subject.
Values computed from raw scores that relate student's performance to those of a norming group, e.g, percentiles & grade equivalents.
Useful for measuring aspects of complex achievement that cannot be measured well by more objective means
Ability to supply rather than merely identify interpretations & applications of data (restrictive response questions)
Ability to organize, integrate, & express ideas in a general attack on a problem (extended response questions)
Essay questions limitations
1. Scoring tends to be unreliable
2. Scoring is time consuming
3. Only a limited sampling of achievement is obtained
Can usually be generated by outlining possible answers deserving full credit & indicating what aspects of the answers are required for different amounts of partial credit.
Extended-response essays scoring rubrics
A choice b/w analytic & holistic scoring rubrics should be made. Analytic scoring rubrics have the advantage of providing students w/ more specific feedback than holistic scoring rubrics.
Holistic scoring rubrics
can be developed & applied more rapidly & may correspond closely to grading decisions that need to be made.
Scoring procedures can be improved by
a) using a scoring rubric
b) adapting the scoring method to the type of question used
c) controlling the influence of irrelevant factors
d) evaluating all answers to ea question @one time
e) evaluating w/o looking at student name
f) obtaining 2 or more independent ratings when impt decisions are to be made.
The study of theories of knowledge, truth, existence, & morality
Philosophy of education
A framework for thinking about educational issues, & a guide for professional practice.
A set of related principles that are based on observation & are used to explain additional observations.
A description of the way professionals ought to practice.
The branch of philosophy that examines questions of how we come to know what we know.Ex:scientific method,intuition,authority,divine revelation
The branch of philosophy that considers what we know.
The branch of philosophy that considers values & ethics.
The branch of philosophy that examines the processes of deriving valid conclusions from basic principles.
A traditional philosophy asserting that ideas are only reliable form of reality.
A traditional philosophy suggesting that the features of the universe exist whether or not a human being is there to perceive them.
A traditional philosophy that rejects the idea of absolute, unchanging truth, instead asserting that truth is "what works."
A traditional philosophy suggesting that humanity isn't part of an orderly universe; rather, individuals create their own realities.
An educational philosophy suggesting that nature-including human nature-is constant.
An educational philosophy suggesting that a critical core of knowledge & skills exists that all people should possess.
An educational philosophy emphasizing curricula that focus on real-world problem solving & individual development.
An educational philosophy contending that many of the institutions in our society, including schools, are used by those in power to control & marginalize those who lack power.
behavioral learning theories
Explanations of learning that emphasize observable changes in behavior.
Cognitive learning theories
Explanations of learning that focus on mental process
A change in an individual that results from experience.
Environmental conditions that activate the senses; the singular is stimulus
A stimulus that naturally evokes a particular response.
A behavior that is prompted automatically by a stimulus
Stimuli that have no effect on a particular response.
A previously neutral stimulus that evokes a particular response after having been paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
The process of repeatedly associating a previously neutral stimulus w/ an unconditioned stimulus in order to evoke a conditioned response.
The use of pleasant or unpleasant consequences to control the occurrence of behavior.
An apparatus developed by B.F. Skinner for observing animal behavior in experiments in operant conditioning.
Pleasant or unpleasant conditions that follow behaviors & affect the frequency of future behaviors.
A pleasurable consequence that maintains or increases a behavior.
Food, water, or other consequence that satisfies a basic need.
(Teachers are a primary source of reinforcement in children's lives)
Pleasurable consequence given to strengthen behavior.
Release from an unpleasant situation, given to strengthen behavior.
Premack Principle aka "Grandma's rule"
Rule stating that enjoyable activities can be used to reinforce participation in less enjoyable activities.
Behaviors that a person enjoys engaging in for their own sake, w/o any other reward
A consequence that people learn to value through its association w/ a primary reinforcer.
3 Types: social reinforcers (praise/hugs/attention), activity reinforcers (access to toys/games/fun activities), token (symbolic) reinforcers (money/grades/stars/points to exchange for other reinforcers)
Praise or rewards given to motivate people to engage in behavior that they might not engage in w/o them.
Learning based on observation of the consequences of others' behavior
Contributed to the idea of classical conditioning
Continued the study of the relationship b/w behavior consequences. He described operant conditioning, in which reinforcers & punishers shape behavior.
Social Learning. Noted that learning through modeling (directly/vicariously) involves 4 phases: paying attention, retaining the modeled behavior, reproducing the behavior, & being motivated to repeat the behavior.
Proposed steps for self-regulated learning that represent a form of cognitive behavior modification.
Behavioral learning theories are limited in scope in that they...
describe only observable behavior that can be directly measured.
Basic requirements for physical & psychological well-being as identified by Maslow.
Needs for knowing, appreciating, & understanding, which people try to satisfy after their basic needs are met.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Growth needs: Self-actualization need, aesthetic need, need to know & understand
A person's ability to develop his/her full potential.
A theory of motivation that focuses on how people explain the causes of their own successes & failures.
Constructivist theories of learning
Theories that state that learners must individually discover & transform complex information, checking new information against old rules & revising rules when they no longer work.
The process by which a learner gradually acquires expertise through interaction w/ an expert, either an adult or an older or more advanced peer.
A constructivist approach to teaching in which students are encouraged to discover principles for themselves.
Students who have knowledge of effective learning strategies & how & when to use them.
Assisted learning; an approach in which the teacher guides instruction by means of scaffolding to help students master & internalize the skills that permit higher cognitive functioning.
The application of knowledge & skills to achieve certain goals.
A problem-solving technique that encourages identifying the goal (ends) to be attained, the current situation, & what needs to be done (means) to reduce the difference b/w the two conditions.
A thinking skills program in which students work through a series of paper-and-pencil exercises that are designed to develop various intellectual abilities.
The ability to make rational decisions about what to do or what to believe.
What is the constructivist view of learning?
Constructivist believe that knowing is a process & learners must individually & actively discover & transform complex information to make it their own.
Constructivist approaches emphasize...
1) top-down processing, in which students begin w/ complex problems or tasks & discover the basic knowledge & skills needed to solve problems or perform the tasks 2) cooperative learning, questioning or inquiry strategies, & other metacognitive skills.
Constructivist learning methods
Discovery learning & scaffolding are constructivist learning methods based on cognitive learning theories.
Based on Vygotsky's views, calls for teacher assistance to students at critical points in their learning.
How is cooperative learning used in instruction?
Small groups of students work together to help one another learn. Cooperative learning groups are used in discovery learning, discussion, & study for assessment.
Cooperative learning program
Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD) are successful b/c they reward both group & individual effort & improvement, & b/c groups are responsible for the individual learning of each group member.
How are problem-solving & thinking skills taught?
2. problem representation
3. creative problem solving needs: incubation time, suspension of judgment, conductive climates, problem analysis, the application of thinking skills, & feedback. 4. Thinking skills include; planning, classifying, divergent thinking, identifying assumptions, identifying misleading information, & generating questions. Thinking skills can be taught through programs such as instrumental enrichment