HIST 1361 9/1/2009 Indentured Servitude to Slavery *Africans are considered the third founding culture Slavery and race in colonial America Antibellum period = ~1830 – Civil War -Most Americans believed race is a social category -fixed category -biologically speaking, there is no difference between races Race as a “constructed category” – concept of group identity that has evolved over time. Societies with Slaves Slavery was not the dominating factor Indentured servants, free-labor, craftsman Common for slaves to move in and out of free status No white slaves No slave trade in Europe; slave trade in Africa Indentured servan’ts work was similar to slaves Includes: jobs, working and living conditions, social lives Free blacks -Anthony Johnson Slave who arrived in 1621 to Virginia Purchased his freedom, and his wide and kids First slaves arrived in Jamestown in 1619 Jobs of Slaves Worked on farms Worked in tobacco fields Mining Worked in tanniers Ship-building Domestic work Skilled labor (blacksmith, weaving) Workshops (factories) Slavery in New Amsterdam 1638: 30% enslaved 1664: 20% enslaved In New Netherlands about 20% of slaves eventually earned their freedom Slave Societies *Slavery is generally the predominant form of labor. Economy depends on slavery. *much more difficult to earn freedom *cash crops – tobacco, rice, sugar, indigo Factors in North America that made it transition to a Slave Society: Decline in Indentured Servitude New colonies that were seen as having better opportunities for immigrants Planters in South could not fill demand for indentured servants Decline for demand Planters wanted a labor force they could keep Indentured Servants were trouble Bacon’s Rebellion (1676): Nathanial Bacon Rebellion against Virginian government Expansion of slave trade As slave trade expanded, so did slavery Triangular Trade: movement of goods, people and money between Europe, Africa and America. Chesapeake: Maryland/Virgina *tobacco-cash crop Percent of Virginians who were enslaved: Mid 1660’s: 5% 1720: 25% 1740: 40% Plantation Revolution New laws made it easier for planters to consolidate large ownings Gained economic and legal power – more resrouces, can buy more slaves ( more imports of slaves directly from Africa *black person was considered a slave Creole: mix of African, European and American. Slave Societies: South Carolina and Georgia South Carolina -Cash crops: rice and indigo. Changes SC from society with slaves to slave society. Stono Rebellion (1739): Slave rebellion where 60 slaves murdere whites. 1720-slaves outnumbered whites by 2:1 Task System – slaves had tasks they needed to complete each day. When they were done, they had free time Gullah – new language of slaves. Combo of African and English languages Maroon societies: slaves that had run away developed their own societies Slave Societies: Northern colonies Developed in port cities New york was 14% black Manumission: decision ofmaster to free a slave.