Who is the 1 Founding Father of Modern Psychiatry?
What is the Pleasure Principle?
What the id operates according to an overriding goal of maximizing pleasure and eliminating any assoc. tension or conflicts
What does the Ego operate on?
The Reality Principle
What are the Moral Principles Instilled in us?
Whatis transferring a feeling about, or a response to, an object that causes discomfort onto another, usually less threatening object or person?
Converting a painful or unacceptable feeling into its opposte (i.e., you hate a former lover, but underneath it all you still really love that person)
What is Projection?
Attributing one's own feelings or thoughts to other people (i.e., a husband argues that his wife is angry with him, when in fact he is angry with her)
- free association
- dream analysis
What is the most common projective Test?
details of the combination of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings of an individual that make up a particular disorder.
Psychoanalytic therapy technique intended to explore threatening material repressed into the unconscious. The patient is instructed to say whatever comes to mind without censoring.
- identifying specific behaviors that are observable and measurable... Operation definitions need to be MEASURABLE IN A RELIABLE WAY
Self-report questionnaires that assess personal traits by asking respondents to identify descriptions that apply to them
Psychoanalytically based measures that present ambiguous stimuli to clients on the assumption that their responses will reveal their unconscious conflicts. Such tests are inferential and lack high reliability and validity
Degree to which a measurement is consistent?for example, over time or among different raters
Reliability (Inter-rater reliability)
Degree to which a technique actually measures what it is supposed to measure
The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale is...
7 point scale
How much freedom does psychological testing have?
The subject has little freedom in responding but it can be scored easily and objectively
The first IQ test was derived where?
And by who?
France- By Alfred Binet (1905)
How is IQ measured?
Mental age/Chronological Age x 100= IQ
What IQ is considered Mentally Retarded
Less than 70
What Stimulates or mimics a real life situation?
Is Digital Symbol part of the verbal scale of WAIS III?
What is a culture-Fair Intelligence test?
Ravens Progressive Matrices (nonverbal and age 6 to 80)
What is Sternbergs Triarchic Theory?
Analytical, Practical and Creative Intelligence
What type of intelligence is book smarts?
What is a critisism of multiple intelligence?
Intelligence of talent? Correltaions- relativism
What is intrinsic value?
Stretching the concept wise- All forms of intelligence extend beyond the concept of IQ tests
What did Exner do?
Wrote the most widely used manual in the US on structured interview scoring of Projective Tests
What type of tests give the subject the greates freedom?
Why are projective test criticized?
Poor inter-judge reliability and Low validity
What is the K-scale on self-report inventories?
Distorting the truth, white lies
What is inter-rater reliability
Determines the exent to which 2 or more raters obtain the same result when using the same instrument to measure a concept
What is IntrA-rater reliability?
Relaiblity assessment in which the same assessment is completed by the same rater on 2 or more occasions. These Different ratings are then compared, generally by means of correlation. Since the same individual is completing both assessments, the rater's subsequent ratings are contaminated by knowledge earlier ratings.
What is the process by which norms are established?
How can a test be reliable but NOT valid?
A test on Chinese in a psych class, could be reliable, even across the board, but not Valid for psych.
What is prepared learning?
Certain Associations can be learned more readily than others bc this ability has been adaptive for evolution
What thyroid condition may produce symptoms that mimic a generalized anxiety disorder?
What might produce symptoms of are consistent w/ depression
Underactive thyroid gland (HYPOthyroidism)
According to psychoanalysis, where are defense mechanisms originated?
unconsious processes originating in the EGO.
What is the Id and when is it present?
the unconsious physical entity present AT BIRTH representing basic drives
What is Intrapsychic Conflict?
The struggles among the Id, ego, and superego
What is the WAISIII Verbal scale composed of?
- Digit Span
- Letter- Number sequencing (7subsets)
What is a statistical Technique that allowa researchers to identify clusters of test items that measure a common ability?
What are differences in Self-report tests and Projective-Tests?
Self-report= Expectations are well defined
Pt- expectations are minimally defined
SR= Stimuli are familiar
PT- Stimuli are novel
SR= Response Range is narrow
PT= Response range is wide
What is prevalence?
Number of people displaying a disorder in the total pop at any given time
What is primary process?
The Id's characteristic mode of thinking- emotional, irrational, and preoccupied w/ sex, aggression, and envy
Head injury in motor cycle wreck, Episodic and Semantic memory are dissociated- His EPISODIC memor was impaired- (eg can play chess but won't remember playing)
Episodic and Semantic memory (2 spe long-term memory) one can be damaged w/out damaging the other
Autobiographical memory (things one has personally done)
General Knowledge (memory)
eg vision and audition are double-diss. bc w/ 2 people one can have vision impaired and one can have audition impaired
damage to 1 brainr region can disrupt 2 abilities (eg chess and math can both be dissoc- so chess and math are completely associated)
What book did Luria write?
Min of a Mnemonist
A cross matching of senses
- people with strong synesthesia are Synesthetes (rare= 1 in 2000)
What memory did S not have?
Short-term memory - was a synthete
Most important psychology case
Henry Molaison (HM)- has epilepsy at early age- removed hippocampus- after surgery- seizures reduced- but led to other problems- AMNESIA)
HM had good what?
Short term memory- He demonstrated PRIMING ( learning without awareness
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