describes the inheritance of a single characteristic (monohybrid cross)
Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment
alleles of a pair segregate independently of other allele pairs during gamete formation
The Law of Segregation proposes what 4 hypothesis based on a monohybrid cross
1. organisms have 2 genes (alleles) for each inherited characteristic
2. inherited alleles = 1 from mom, 1 from dad
3. allele that determines organism's appearance is dominant if alleles aren't the same. Recessive has no noticeable effect
4. allele pairs segregate from each other during gamete production
The law of independent assortment is revealed by tracking ___ characteristics at once, this is called a ______________________
Mendel discovered that ___________ are located on chromosomes, whose behavior during meiosis and fertilization accounts for inheritance patterns
PRA stands for
progressive retinal atrophy
the mating between an individual with an unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive individual
Rule of Multiplication
a compound event is the product of the separate probabilities.
can be used to determine individual genotypes
An individual that is heterozygous for a recessive gene that predisposes for hereditary division
phenotype ratio for 2 heterozygotes BbHh x BbHh 9:3:3:1
The 2 dominant human genetic disorders:
a degenerative nerve disease that doesn't appear until middle age
in order to get a genotypic evaluation, expecting parents undergo
2 invasive tests of fetal testing are:
chronic villus sampling (cvs)
ultrasound imaging that uses sound waves to produce a picture of the fetus
when the doctor takes fluid from the uterus of a pregnant female
(aka: Chronic Villus Sampling) takes a piece of tissue from the placenta
At birth, some genetic disorders can be detected by simple tests, this is called
Newborns are tested for ____________________ which is evaluating the presence of phenylketone in the urine.
Babies with phenylketonuria cannot break down phenylaline. Too much phenylaline in a babies diet leads to
Genetic testing can detect _______________________, thus, informing people of the risk for developing genetic diseases.
disease causing alleles
a form of intermediate inheritance in which heterozygous alleles are both expressed resulting in a combined phenotype
A condition in which both alleles are fully expressed is called ___________________. An example of this is the _____________________.
Blood type: type AB
the blood typing system contains what three alleles?
a protein molecule in body fluids that changes other substances
Type __ blood is the Universal Donor.
Type __ blood is the Universal Recipient.
defined as a single gene that affects several characteristics. (Ex. sweet pea plant: one gene controls flower color, seed color, and leaf shape)
When one characteristic is controlled by several genes
Phenotype can be affected by:
genetic and environmental factors
the exception to Mendel's rule of independent assortment. They are genes found on the same chromosome physically linked on different locus. They tend to be inherited together because they reside together on the same chromosome.
The X-O system is found in:
XX is female
XO is male
The ____ system is found in chickens.
ZW is female
ZZ is male
In bees, _________________ determine the sex. How many for each gender?
32 for females
16 for males
_______________ are different from linked genes because the genes are located on the sex chromosome.
In fruit flies, ____________________ is a sex-linked trait.
White eye color
Sex linked disorders affect mostly males
males can give their offspring either an X or a Y chromosome. Females can only pass on an X chromosome
2 examples of sex-linked disorders
Red-green color blindness
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