natural or medical -consequence of a person developing his or her own response to a microbe
natural or medical -the consequence of a person receiving preformed immunity made by another person
example of active natural
infection of microbe and person develops immunity
example of active artificial
vaccination to develop immunity
example of passive natural
example of passive artificial
immune globin therapy (giving the patient antibodies made by someone else)
MHC class I molecules do what?
act as red flag to CD8 cytotoxic cells to signal that the cell has become infected and needs to be destroyed
MHC class II molecules do what?
are on macrophage and dendritic cells and present antigens to C4 t helper cells that can then educate Bcells
MHC class I molecules found on what cells?
found on ALL nucleated cells
MHC class II molecules found on what cells?
macrophages and dendritic cells
how do MHC class I bind peptides?
bind to peptides made by pathogen inside of cell and present the antigen on the outside of the cell
how do MHC class II molecules bind peptides?
bind peptides in the extracellular environment and then educate the other cells of the imminent infection
MHC class I molecules interact with what cells?
CD8 cytotoxic T-cells
MHC class II molecules interact with what cells?
CD4 t-helper cells that then educate
based on antibody activity -anitbodies produced by b cells -deal with b cells activated that produce memory b cells and plasma cells that create antibodies
cell mediated immunity
based on action of specific t cells -education of cells and then memory response created
role of CD8 cytotoxic cells
destroy cells in which an infection has occurred and the MHC class I molecules have displayed the antigen
role of CD4 t helper cells
cells that are needed for t cell dependent antigen responses for the antigen to be properly presented to B cells -also promotes cell mediated response
types of CD4 t-helper cells
TH1= interact w/cytotoxic t cells TH2=interact with B cells TH17=recruit neutrophils
2 ways bcells are activated
t dependent and t independent antigen triggering
t-dependent antigen triggering
-macrophage presents antigen -t helper cell is activated -educates b cell -b cell proliferates into plasma cell and memory b cell -plasma cell produces antibodies
t independent antigen triggering
antigen directly triggers the b cell response w/o help of t cell
what is IgG antibody?
-major in human serum(plasma,tissue fluids) -monomer -opsonizes bacteria, neutralizes toxins and viruses, activates complement, only antibody that can cross to placenta
what is IgM antibody?
-pentameric structure -in bloodstream -is primary antibody responder -clumps bacteria, activates complement, enhances ingestion of pathogens by phagocytosis
what is IgA antibody?
-dimer connected by J-chain -only antibody that can be secreted into mucus -plays major role in protecting surface tissues against infectious microbes by the formation of immune barrier and responding to antigens on the surface tissues
what is IgD antibody?
-monomer -abundant on the surface of Bcells -signal the B cell to start antibody production upon initial antigen binding
what is IgE antibody?
-can bind to special receptors on mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils - causes cells to degranulate -causes release of histamine and other mediators of inflammation -aids in elimination of helminthic parasites
purpose of memory in the adaptive response
memory response to a second infection of a pathogen is much faster and often there is no noticeable pathogenesis
apsects of innate immunity
-acts as 1st line of defense -offers resistance to any foreign microbe or material -lacks immunological memory
aspects of adaptive immunity
-almost always responds selectively to non-self, producing specific responses against the stimulus -generates enormous diversity of molecules such as antibodies that recognize trillions of different foreign substances -can be directed against one specific pathogen or foregin sub -2nd exposure response is much faster and often not obvious
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