dermal bone - from dermis, major component of hard shell
epidermal scales cover surface-keratin
plastron - scales (scutes) of keratin supported by dermal bone of neural crest origin
epidermal; made of keratin
birds - scales
legs and feet - covered with horny scales (reptilian)
combination of pigments and scattering of light
pigments are passed to feather from chromatophores
arrector plumari muscles in dermis move feathers
Ornithol the basal hollow shaft of a feather; quill
Ornithol the shaft of a feather, esp the part that carries the barbs
Ornithol the flat part of a feather, consisting of two rows of barbs on either side of the shaft
One of the parallel filaments projecting from the main shaft of a feather.
A small barb or pointed projection, especially one of the small projections fringing the edges of the barbs of feathers.
any of the feathers that cover the body of an adult bird, apart from the wings and tail, and determine its shape
small feathers whose barbs do not unite to form a closed vane, thus giving it a fluffy appearance.
filoplumes and bristles
feathers in which the barbs are very reduced or lost. the former probably have a sensory function. the later are present in some species around eyes and nostrils (to keep dirt out) and mouth (to help trap insects).
flighless bird feathers
the barbs are not held together by barbicels or hooklets. because of their location on the body, however, they are usually considered "contour feathers"
the feathers are symmetrical
in the emu, two shafts emerge from one calamus. in most birds, a small "afterfeather" accompanies the much larger contour feather. in emus, the two are of equal size.
color in bird feathers
color results from the selective reflection and absorption of different wave lengths. reflection and absorption are each determined by both the pigmentation and the structural characteristics of a feather.
if all wave lengths are reflected, the bird appears white.
if some wave lengths are absorbed, we will perceive color.
melanin - most common
carotinoids from food - red, orange, yellow
porphyrins (nitrogenous compounds) - pinks and reds
beautiful pink coloration comes from the food (small crustaceans) upon which they feed
feathers also display structural colors: iridescence - light is reflected back from barbules
blue coloration is produced by the very ordered structure of a feather and by the presence of tiny air sacs in the feathers.
when a blue feather is held agains the light, feather looks black.
yellow - chemical
blue - stuctural
epidermal scales in mammals
keratin - tail of beaver, rat
beaver skin - note scales on tail, as well as fur and claws
dermis can produce bone
armadillo shell - armadillos are the only mammals to encase themselves in bone
porcupine - compounded hair
humpback whale - keratin plates called baleen sieve out krill when baleen whale raises tongue
surface is keratin, bony center
usually present in both sexes
cattle, sheep, goats
bone, epidermal covering, not keratin
usually present only in males
usually shed annually
keratin, smaller and softer
The teeth of sharks are not attached to the jaw, but embedded in the flesh, and in many species are constantly replaced throughout the shark's life. All sharks have multiple rows of teeth along the edges of their upper and lower jaws. New teeth grow continuously in a groove just inside the mouth and move forward from inside the mouth on a "conveyor belt" formed by the skin in which they are anchored.
teeth are of one type (homodont), rather than several different types (heterodont), the way mammal teeth are
teeth are heterodont - different kinds of teeth - incisors, canines, molars. mammal teeth may be very different in different species, however.
(porcupine, beaver, rat) - note that the incisors keep growing throughout life, chewing helps with teeth becoming too long.
the tip is not covered in enamel
an advantage to an animal that chews through hard materials is that teeth are sharper and harder
orange coloration is the result of iron deposition
molars are not completely covered by enamel
dentine clears away, leaving sharp enamel ridges, harder and sharper
elephant and mammoth teeth are incompletely covered with enamel. The softer dentin wears down (grooves) leaving the sharp enamel ridges to grind food. (Mastodon teeth are different).
elongated canines (tusks) form in both upper and lower jaws
have lobodont teeth
incisors are grooved
teeth are white in young animals and darken with age
the dark coloration is the result of pigment (melanin) deposition in the teeth
type of whale with a long "tusk"
tusk is actually one very long left incisor that grows out through the lip of the male narwal
since the tusk is highly innervated, its function is probably neurosensory
type of beaked whale
have one pair of lower teeth that break through the gum in males only
teeth can grow from the lower jaw, encircling the upper jaw so that opening of the mouth is severely re
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