Digit span: repeat digit back and see how many numbers can be repeated back correctly
WAIS Performance Scale
Digit symbol shown and shapes and numbers
Block design: assemble block to match the design shown
Object assembly: put pieces together to make sense of it
Interpreting Intelligence Scores
(68% of the population is between 85 and 115)
Intellectual Disability <70 and have difficulty adapting
Things that Influence Intelligence Testing
Significant Medical Events (TBI)
Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligence
According to his theory, we have not one intelligence, but many distinct intelligences or skills that are valued by one's culture
Rosenthal and Jacobsen (1968) Effects of Teacher Expectations
They took 1st-6th graders intelligence levels and told teachers that there were bloomers in the class that could excel and do amazing if pushed and focused on more, when they really weren't.
Effects of Teacher Expectations Experiment Results
Results: these children who were not actually bloomers did change and excel past the class, because the teachers focused all their energy on these students in the class and making sure they were understanding all the material and being rewarded.
Believed intelligence was different in race and genetics. In the 1960s White and Black Americans had a 15 point difference in the average "IQ" scores. White scored 100 +/- 20 while Black scored 85 +/- 20. The +/- 20 (40-80%) of the people is genetic
Mismeasure of Man
Morton measure the volume of human skulls of different raced by filling them up with rice. The test was believed to be bias because, when morton took measurements, he knew what skull belonged to what race, so he could have been a little bias measuring
Mismeasure of Man Outcome
The max difference between the human skulls was 13 cubic inches. When the experiment was done over with the same skulls and the experimenter didn't know what skull belonged to what race, the max difference was 4 cubic inches.
Sir Francis Galton
he gave us the bell-shaped curve, correlation, twin/adoption studies, used "antropometric measurements" to study intelligence.
Galton's Belief on mating
He believed only the best should mate:
Psychological traits fall into the bell-shape cure
Used the correlation approach
Logic of twin studies and adoption studies
He was big on measure aspects of human beings (intelligence)
Galton's belief on intelligence
more intelligent people had better nervous systems; their perception is better and are able to tell smaller difference of lighting intensity or small details of visual stimuli.
He was asked to find the children that needed to be taken into special classed. He tested their cognition, thinking, vocabulary. Tested kids at putting pictures into order and make a story that made sense.
Mental Age vs. Chronological Age
Binet made this distinction.
C.A. - M.A. = 2 year deficiency
When he compared their actual age with their mental awareness and education level he figured out the intelligence of a child.
Cam in and changed Binet's idea. He took the M.A and divided it by the C.A. and multiplied the product by 100. The was the creation of the I.Q. or Intelligence Quotient
Created standard scored to show variation in intelligence
Variation in Intelligence
Challenged I.Q. = 70 or less
Mild = 52-67
Moderate = 36-51
Severe = 20-35
Profound = < 20
Gifted = 130 +
Studies the lifespan of genius. He covered over 30 years and concluded that being smart was good. More intelligent people were happier then typical people, they were healthier and successful then the average person.
-people who do bad in one aspect of mathematics ten to do bad on the other math concepts or not at the level of the average people for people in there demographic
-people who do badly on reading tend to not have as advanced vocabulary
Spearman's "g" factor
g factors = general intelligence
s factors = specific abilities
a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.
Thurstones's 7 primary abilites
Guilford's Cube Model
created the triarchic theory of intelligence.
Three parts of the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence [ Analytic]
higher IQs spend more time on a question up-front and speed up
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence [Creative]
divergent thinking: think flexible and entertain a wide range of solutions
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence [Practical]
ability to size up new situations and adapt to real-life demands
(e.g. "street smarts" "self made person")
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