Aggression 5/17/11 9:33 AM Interpersonal attraction Need for affiliation The desire to establish social contact with others. Having lasting significant relationships with others Apprehensive about situations where we are under public scrutiny Social anxiety disorder Cant function with others around them Stress arouses our need for affiliation. External threats cause people to want to bond with others Fear of Affliation Classic study - Schachter (1959) Female participants were told that the experiment would involve receiving electric shocks Either told they would be ?quite painful?, or ?like a tickle? Given choice to wait alone or in a room with others waiting for same study Preference to wait with others High Fear 62.5% Low Fear 33.0% people in operation prefer to stay with others post operation?cognitive clarity?know what to expect Fear vs. Embarrassment (Sarnoff and Zimbardo) Having people around us contributes to the feeling of being embarrassed. Others help us gain cognitive clarity about the stressful event allowing us to better cope with the impending threat. During fear preference to stay with others higher Shyness: % describing selves as shy More likely to avoid other people See themselves more negatively] Lowest in Israel and highest in Japan Shyness and Loneliness Shyness is a pervasive problem Can be an inborn personality trait as well as a learned reaction to failed interactions with others. Can be based on conditioning or genetically based Loneliness: A feeling of deprivation about social relations. Most likely to occur during times of transition or disruption. Loneliest group in America are adolescents and young adults 18 to 30 years old. Factors that affect initial attraction: Proximity Can use internet to bridge physical separation Festinger, Schachter, and Back Building coed social dorms Most who were popular are those in apartment 8 and 3 Central location of apartment 8 and the close proximity to mailboxes Architecture of Friendship As the distance increases, the likelihood of being friends decreases Familiarity Mere Exposure Effect: Stimulus that was neutral?with repeated exposure?becomes more favorable as exposed more?increases favorability rating is the mere exposure effect real just sat in class?end of semester given photos of confederates?rated based on attractiveness didn?t realize they were sitting in the class with them Study: reversed facial images Prefer the reversed image because that is what they see in the mirror while the friends preferred the photograph We like what we see repeatedly Physical Attractiveness Beauty is only skin deep? Attracted to their bodies or their brains Females attracted to brain and males attracted to body Is it really important to be attractive Ranking defendants on how attractive they were Low attractiveness, the bail is set much higher than the attractive person Walster: computer dance blind date study Freshman couples supposedly matched up on traits. Went to dance. Main findings: Everyone wanted best-looking, most charming, brightest dates People matched with beautiful dates wanted to pursue them again Nothing else mattered (IQ, social skills, etc) No gender differences Why Beautiful? Nice complexion, symmetrical Eyes Jawline Is beautiful in the eye of the beholder No! Raters agree about who is and is not attractive, both within and across ethnicity and culture Perhaps there are some universal standards by which attractiveness is judged. What is facial features is beautiful? In Men Large eyes Prominent cheekbones Large chin Big smile In Women Large eyes Prominent cheekbones Narrow cheeks High eyebrows Big smile Averaging effect Averaging many faces makes them more beautiful Beautiful people not considered unique but are the average 2 perspectives: 1. Evolutionary view- averageness/symmetry signals: health, fitness & fertility 2. Cognitive psych view- prototype theory Prototypes are perceived as familiar and as the "best" example of the category. Prototypes are often the mean tendency of a population. Different Shapes Sophia loren: quintessential hourglass Men should be triangle?more muscular build Height Is beauty an objective quality Babies fixate more on individuals that are considered highly attractive We?re indoctrinated in considering who is ugly and beauty Works through the mechanism of media Cultural Differences People from different cultures enhance their beauty in very different ways. What is found attractive in one part of the world is often seen as repulsive in another part of the world. Ideal body shapes also vary across cultures, as well as among racial groups within a culture. Standards of beauty change somewhat over time. Body type : appears to be more cross culturally variable than facial attractiveness (Hebi and Heatherton study) Why African Americans differ in ideas of beauty Typicality African Americans seem to be on heavier side Identification with media They identify less with the media Miss World 2002 from Nigeria?not considered beautiful in her country but yes in America Body Preference and Reliability of food supply (Anderson) With less food?standard of beauty seems to be heavy US?more food supply so being thin is preferred Difference in BMI Female general population has increasing BMI The lower line= playboy playmate BMI?decreasing rapidly Rate my Professor (Riniolo): quantitative relationship between attractiveness and evaluation on teaching skills Red and Attraction Exposed both males and females of males and females, but manipulated the background of the picture. Red background= more attractive How it feels to see attractive person If different gender, feels good Why is beauty so important to us? What is beautiful, is good stereotype When being attractive is a disadvantage When seen, less likely to think positive feedback is not about the quality of work?don?t know if being complemented based on looks There?s a pressure to maintain good looks Similarity Matching Hypothesis: people tend to become involved romantically withothers who are equivalent Don?t opposites attract No support for complementary hypothesis Share same demographic, attitudes, attractiveness, personality, isharing (have similar interpretation of a subjective experience) 2 model of the attraction process those in same group are similar while outgroup is different Matching Hypothesis Study (Murstein, 1972) Subjects rated photos of men & women on attractiveness Photos were of engaged couples Greater similarity in attractiveness ratings of couples than of random pairs Study (Zajonc, Adelman, Murphy, & Niedenthal, 1987) Judges viewed photos of men & women and guessed who was married to whom Photos actually of same people 25 years apart Much more accurate at guessing couples after 25 years This study attempted to determine whether people who live with each other for a long period of time grow physically similar in their facial features. Photographs of couples when they were first married and 25 years later were judged for physical similarity and for the likelihood that they were married. The results showed that there is indeed an increase in apparent similarity after 25 years of cohabitation. Moreover, increase in resemblance was associated with greater reported marital happiness. Among the explanations of this phenomenon that were examined, one based on a theory of emotional efference emerged as promising. This theory proposes that emotional processes produce vascular changes that are, in part, regulated by facial musculature. The facial muscles are said to act as ligatures on veins and arteries, and they thereby are able to divert blood from, or direct blood to, the brain. An implication of the vascular theory of emotional efference is that habitual use of facial musculature may permanently affect the physical features of the face. The implication holds further that two people who live with each other for a longer period of time, by virtue of repeated empathic mimicry, would grow physically similar in their facial features. Kin resemblance, therefore, may not be simply a matter of common genes but also a matter of prolonged social contact. A. L.Dear A. L.: As far as physical appearance is concerned, likes seem to attract. Some experts feel that this resemblance may partly be explained by the fact that couples who''ve lived together for some time usually eat the same diet and share the same habits.The Joyce Brothers Column April 1985 Reciprocity Reciprocity A mutual exchange between what we give and receive (for example, liking those who like us). Networ of 3 people as well Believing another likes or dislikes you: behaviors making the belief comes true We like those who like us Arousal Evolutionary perspective Interpersonal Attraction (Final Material) 5/17/11 9:33 AM Prosocial behavior?less about personality but more about situation Wesley Autrey: the ?Subway Samaritan? Used his body to protect the guy who was going to get run over by train Angle Arce Torress: Can someone please help me? Hit and run?but no one is coming to his aid Various Theories of Prosocial Behavior and Altruism Evolutionary Theories Rewards of Helping Empathy-Altruism Theory Evolutionary Factors in Helping 2 evolutionary principles: 1) Kinship Selection: Preferential example: meerkats with one at guard all the time?risking his own life helping of genetic relatives, so that genes held in common will survive. strongest when the biological stakes are particularly high. Helping and Altruism (Burnstein, Crandall, Kitayama) Helping others is a direct function of recipients? ability to enhance the inclusive fitness of the helpers Study: Imagine individuals asleep in different rooms of a rapidly burning building You only have time to rescue one of them Ss circle the target they?re most likely to help Ss cross out the target they?re least likely to help Graph: Graph: tendency to help by age of target (burnstein) more likely to help is when they are young in life and death situation?example: grandma is not of great importance since not reproducing anymore. Graph: tendency to help under famine conditions Kinship Selection: Actual Behavior Graph: percent distribution of associates by social context-wartime survey Socialize more with friends regularly, but during the time of war they call more upon family and kinship Kindship and altruism: cross cultural experimental study Graph: last longer if they person that will receive the benefit is kin or family Evolutionary Factors in helping What is the reproductive advantage of helping someone who isn?t related to you? 2) Reciprocal Altruism Through reciprocal altruism, helping someone else can be in your best interests. It increases the likelihood that this other person will help you when you need it. Monkey-groom other monkeys Blood bats: regurgitating blood Vampire bats will starve after 60 bloodless hours. It was found that unrelated bats often formed a buddy system, with two individuals regurgitating mostly to each other, indicating that roles often reverse. Across tasks/ if did not reciprocated stop sharing Vervet monkeys: Responding attentively and grooming Genetically related also Across modalities If dint reciprocate?stop sharing Another evolutionary perspective: group selection Groups with altruistic members may be less likely to become extinct than groups with only selfish individuals. Indirect reciprocity?if I help you, then someone from the group will help me Rewards of helping: helping others to help oneself Arousal: Cost-reward model ? The proposition that people react to emergency situations by acting in the most cost-effective way to reduce the arousal of shock and alarm. Feeling good Being, or appearing to be good (moral hypocrisy/ overhelping) Cost of helping, or of not helping If cost is not too high, then can participate in prosocial behavior True Altruism exist? Is helping motivated by altruistic or egoistic concerns? Altruistic: Motivated by the desire to increase another?s welfare. Egoistic: Motivated by the desire to increase one?s own welfare. Empathy-Altruism theory Batson (1991): The motivations behind some helpful actions are truly altruistic. It is the nature of the helper?s motives that counts, not whether or not the helper receives benefits or costs for the helping. If empathy is high enough, we?ll help out of true altruism Cognitive component: perspective taking ? using the power of imagination to try to see the world through someone else?s eyes. Emotional component: empathic concern ? involves other-oriented feelings, such as sympathy, compassion, and tenderness. How other see the world through their eyes Empathy-Altruism hypothesis graph: end result?money was given slow motivation and escape easy?less likely to help 75% say they choose to get money study 85% flippin coin expect to get the money Imagine Self condition ?Most participants feel that giving both people an equal chance ? by, for example, flipping a coin- is the fairest way to assign themselves and the other participants to the tasks Other Egoistic alternatives: negative state relief model People help others in order to counteract their own feelings of sadness Empathic concern sadness Helping behavior mood enhancement Willingness to donate blood Donors are considered ?heros? Magnitude of prosocial behavior is larger Situations 1964?was sexually attacked and murdered in NY she was attacked very close to the building she resided in high rise residents silently watch man beaten to death people are becoming more careless of others Epileptic seizure study--% helping seizure victim After 1 min and after 6 mins 1 bystander?after 6 mins?100% went to go for help, as oppose to the 5 bystander situation where only 62% helped diffusion of responsibility think someone else will intervene Bystander Intervention: Darley and Latane studies Their basic insight: The more people present at an emergency, the less chance any one person will help. Principles: Diffusion of Responsibility: as number of people increases, each person's feeling of personal obligation decreases. Implicit bystander effect having dinner with 10 friends versus 1 person contribute less time when imagine the presence of other people?less likely to offer help Harari and white As male participants walked alone or in groups along a path to a parking lot they were exposed to a simulated rape. A male confederate grabbed a screaming female confederate, put his hand over her mouth, and dragged her into the bushes. Observers recorded the number of participants who offered help. Group: more likely to help then when walking alone Counters the idea about the diffusion of responsibility They are physically together Sometimes the situation is unclear---get clarification What will lesson the diffusion of responsibility Minimizing the psychological distance (knowing one another from before) between the victim and the would-be helper Just grab someone from the crowd and call them out Knowing someone before Roles Bystander helping on computer Calling out someone by name doesn?t work here Name specified less than name not specified New situation if other ppl help, more likely to help Pluralistic ignorance In uncertain situations, people look to actions of others. People mistakenly believe their own thoughts and feelings are different from those of others, even though everyone's behavior is the same. Smoke-Filled Room Study (1968): percent seeking help as smoke entered vents Measured how long people would take to leave the room 3 participants / 2 confederates ? only 10% left the room! Latane and Darley No member of a crowd wants to be the first to fly off the handle, the one to cry ?wolf? when no wolf may really be present. Too great a show of concern may itself be embarrassing, and it also may prematurely commit the bystander to a course of action he has not had a chance to think through. Until he decides what to do, each member of a crowd, however truly concerned he may be about the plight of a victim, may try to maintain a calm demeanor, unruffled front. (p. 40) Want to minimize the hurdles to your getting help Factors influence helping behavior Situational variables: 1.Number of people present 2.Time constraints 3.Weather 4.Modeling 5.Location ? Cities versus small towns 6.Culture Good moods Time pressure and helping Time pressure can conflict with one?s good intentions of helping those in need. Darley & Batson?s (1973) ?Good Samaritan? study. They are in a rush, so will they help? Ahead of schedule?on time?late: helping the most to helping the least Weather Better weather?willing to answer questionare More tipping when better weather Modeling See someone participating in a prosocial behavior?more likely to participate in that behavior as well Why is modeling an inspiration to help 1.Direct Imitation 2.Through rewards we learn what is valued in society 3.Make standards of conduct in society more salient (social norms) Social norms: reciprocity, equity & social responsibility (more general) Social bond with others and we should be helping others if we are able to do that Location?city versus small towns More people know each other Overburdening stimuli in bigger cities Small cities?more members of ingroup Big cities ranked lower than small cities when it comes to offering help Economic influence?didn?t find a relationship in the US Study-urban versus rural Get more help in rural rather than urban Culture collectivism?more likely to get help individualistic?more likely to provide donation type of help extreme case?no difference mild need for help indians more likely to help Helping in 23 cultures Those with sense of simpatico/economic well being More likely to help in emergent type of help higher standard of living?less likely to help Good Mood mood was more positive when exposed to bakery goods more likely to help Why does feeling good lead to helping Desire to maintain one?s good mood Positive expectations about helping Positive thoughts and expectations about social activities Study (Cunningham) The percentage of those helping when camera is broken versus not broken camera Higher likelihood to help the next person when you believe you broke the camera rather then when you didn?t break it Due to guilt it seems Bad Mood and Helping When negative moods make us more likely to help others: If we take responsibility for what caused our bad mood (i.e., feel guilty). If we focus on other people rather than sulking and thinking about ourselves If we are made to think about our personal values that promote helping. Factors influencing helping behavior Situational factors overwhelm personal ones Personal (helper) variables: 1.Personality Personality traits: separating dangerous situations and other altruistic behaviors In Dangerous emergencies: (1) High in self-confidence (2) Independent In more constructed situations: (1) Empathy (2) Advanced moral reasoning 2.Gender women more likely to help in non-emergency situations males more likely to help in emergency situations Interpersonal Influences Relationship between helper and recipient Manchester united fans who helped victim wearing Manchester shirt or Liverpool shirt Helped Manchester shirt wearing person More help to ingroup in emergency situation A talk about how all fans are good and important Helps those with the Manchester/Liverpool shirts versus those with plain shirt Expanded and created the ingroup?now all fans How important is the topic to our ego If low ego and friend is going to be not considered a threat and helping If high ego?will help the stranger more because feel them as threat When might receiving help be perceived as threatening? When individual has high self-esteem/ competence Being helped by similar other When the help isn?t asked for or expected Less likely to get help?when being ambiguous Volunteerism Penner (2002, 2004) argues that there are 4 attributes that define volunteerism: 1)Planned action 2)Long-term behavior 3)Involves ?nonobligated behavior? 4)Occurs within an organizational context Omoto & Snyder (1995) ? identified five categories of motivations underlying peoples decisions to become volunteers to help people with AIDS: 1)Values ?Because I enjoy helping other people? 2)Understanding ?To learn more about how to prevent AIDS? 3)Personal Development ?To gain experience dealing with emotionally difficult topics? 4)Community Concern ?Because of my sense of obligation to the gay community? 5)Esteem Enhancement ?To feel better about myself? Pro-Social Behavior and Altruism 5/17/11 9:33 AM Aggression Defined Behavior intended to harm another person Violence ? extreme acts of aggression Anger ? strong feelings of displeasure in response to a perceived injury Hostility ? negative, antagonistic attitude toward another person or group Types of Aggression Emotional versus Instrumental Instrumental?use aggression to achieve other means To gain attention Wont take place if there are other means to achieve the goal Physical versus Verbal Direct versus Indirect, Relational Levels of aggression vary significantly depending on culture Gun related violence is higher in the US then in other countries Strong gun lobby Violence usually associated with individual rather than US Way more group violence in Europe Nonviolent Cultures Most, but not all cultures, exhibit violence. There are a handful where violence is rare or nearly absent. Bonta (1997) - examined 25 societies around the world where violence was almost completely absent. EX: Chewong of Malay peninsula don't even have any words for quarreling, fighting, war EX: Amish, Hutterites, & Mennonites are subcultures within the U.S. that are remarkably nonviolent. What makes these cultures so peaceful? ?According to Bonta, all but 2 of 25 strongly oppose competition and endorse cooperation in all aspects of life Subgropus within the USA ?younger age is linked to higher rates of violent crime Race: (1) Murders are mostly intra vs. inter-racial (2) 92% of black murder victims were killed by black offenders (3) 83% of of white murder victims were killed by white offenders Gender Differences Men are more violent than women. True in virtually every culture studied around the world. Challenges to the notion that men are more aggressive than females. Boys tend to be more overtly aggressive. Girls often are more indirectly, or relationally, aggressive than boys. Value more social ties Higher in indirect Male higher in physical No difference in verbal aggression Socialization and Gender Differences Males and females are rewarded and punished differently for aggression. They also have different models Social roles have a strong influence on gender differences in physical aggression. Overt aggression tends to be more socially acceptable in stereotypically male roles than female roles. Evolutionary Psychology Similarities between Lorenz?s instinct theory and evolutionary psychology. Emphasis placed on genetic survival rather than survival of the individual. Study:žAccounts for inhibition of aggression against genetically related others. Step fathers who are not genetically linked are higher to commit aggression Why gender differences? Aggression is a means for males to achieve and maintain status. Sexual jealousy Females place higher value on protecting their own lives in order to protect their offspring, so they are more likely to engage in indirect aggression. If there is direct threat to infants (?) willuse direct aggression Maternal aggression (when and which type?) However, there are Significant Differences across Cultures in the Prevalence of Aggression Biological Influences: Behavior Genetics Genetic influence Twin studies ?Brendgen Rate twins on both social and physical aggression Higher correlation for the identical twins?especially the physical aggression Those who are adopted should resemble the biological parents rather than the adopted parents Cloninger-Criminality and Adoption 2% of no criminal records of parent 6% for adoptive parents with criminal record 12% biological parents with criminal record Testosterone Strong positive correlation between testosterone levels and aggression. Does testosterone account for persistent sex differences in physical aggression? Study: testosterone levels in male prisoners Those with violent crimes have higher levels of testosterone College Fraternities Testosterone levels Higher for parties Lower for GPA and community service Animals?stronger relationship Animals with diminished amounts of testosterone (castration) become docile, and if injected with testosterone aggression increases. Prenatal exposure to testosterone also increases aggression in female hyenas. Testosterone?expectation of what it does might lead to certain behavior Correlation of research?there could be a 3rd variable: stress?makes one aggressive and likely to push the levels of testosterone even higher Engage in aggression= testosterone goes up as well Brain Prefrontal cortex Diminished activity there decreases ability to inhibit ourselves and plan ahead Develops last in the brain Adolescents not subjected to death penalty? Neurotransmitter Serotonin (brake) Is Aggression Learned? 2 Types of learning Reinforcement (direct) Aggression can be positively as well as negatively reinforced. Positive reinforcement: Aggression produces desired outcomes. Negative reinforcement: Aggression prevents or stops undesirable outcomes. Lower levels of crime in US due to harsh punishments? When punishment is applied it should (1)Immediately follow the aggressive behavior (2)Strong enough to deter the aggressor (3)Consistently be applied and considered fair and legitimate by the aggressor possible problems with punishment When perceived as unfair or arbitrary may provoke retaliation Escalating cycle of violence When delivered in an hostile manner may serve as a model Corporal punishment? Increase the cycle of violence Spanking by parents and subsequent antisocial behavior by children taken into consideration the familial situation?if family environment is positive then this relationship is not so strong Social Learning Theory: Imitation (indirect learning) Social Learning Theory: We learn from the examples of others, as well as from direct experience with rewards and punishments. Bandura et al.?s (1961) Bobo doll study. Models who use aggression to obtain desired goals and are not punished for their behavior are most likely to increase aggression among observers. By watching aggressive models, people: Learn specific aggressive behaviors. Develop more positive attitudes and beliefs about aggression in general. Construct aggressive ?scripts.? They went beyond what they saw Nonaggressive models decrease aggressive behavior. Hockey I went to a fight the other night and a hockey game broke out Aggressive versus non aggressive of NA and European Social learning?aggressive ones are in NA?imitation Observing models of aggression Sexually coercive men are promiscuous and hostile in their relationships with women. This coerciveness has increased due to television viewing of R- and X-rated movies. Socializtion and Cultural Differences Socialization of aggression varies across cultures. e.g., Cultural differences in machismo. Culture of Honor: Emphasis is placed on honor and status, particularly for males, and the role of aggression in protecting that honor. Even minor conflicts or disputes are often seen as challenges to social status and reputation and can therefore trigger aggressive responses. If wife is flirting with another man, allowed to use aggression Manliness as Function of wife fidelity and culture Less manly in brazil when wife has an affair?more legitimicacy to use aggression Cultures that favor violence breed violence. Scotch-Irish settlers in the South had more violent tendencies than their Quaker, Dutch counterparts in the Northeast of the US. South and Culture of Honor More violent in the south Evidence for culture of honor the US south ?Homicide analyses argument related ones r higher in the south ?Attitude surveys attitudes for protection of self, family, and property are agreed on higher in the south ?Field studies ?Experiments ?Laws & Social Policies ?Place names study: aggression and the soouther culture of honor bumbed into?mascuulinity lower if public insult, percent change of testosterone higher in insult for south, and lower distance they give person to pass in corridor if theres insult in the south Situational Influences on aggression Frustration-Aggression Theory 4 main propositions to original theory (1939): frustration will always elicit the drive to attack others frustration arises when what you want is blocked/prevented every act of aggression could be traced to some previous frustration Not all acts of aggression are targeted against the source of the frustration (displacement) [scapegoating] If boss pisses you off, you target your family or someone else engaging in aggression causes catharsis, which reduces aggressive drive. Operates like hunger Catharsis: A reduction of the motive to aggress that is said to result from any imagined, observed, or actual act of aggression. Displacement: Aggressing against a substitute target because aggressive acts against the source of the frustration are inhibited by fear or lack of access. Catharsis Effect: No sex before the game Berti Vogts, the German football manager in 1994, banned his players from sex before games. Linford Christie, the British sprinter, agreed with the notion, saying having sex the night before a race made his legs feel like lead. In the film Rocky, Mickey - the Italian Stallion's trainer - provided this perspective: "Women weaken legs." Person perception when aggressive or nonaggressive sports are primed Method: Participants watch either boxing or golf and then asked to rate an ambiguous target person on hostility and interest in aggressive activities. Priming a nonaggressive sport?increases aggressive tendencies Catharsis aint supported empiracly Frustaration-Aggressive hypothesis does the research support it Frustration is related to aggression. But frustration does not always produce aggressive inclinations. There are other causes of aggression besides frustration. ?Frustration one of many unpleasant experiences that can lead to aggression by creating negative, uncomfortable feelings. ?It is negative feelings, not frustration itself, that can trigger aggression. Frustration, pain, heat lad to negative feelings which lead to hostile aggression The orginial hypothesis= frustration only leads to aggression of all forms Social rejection, pain, and control Higher level of aggression when ostracized that cause negative feelings Link between heat and violence Uprisings, family disturbances, rapers, assaults all result of higher temperature?especially high in the summers Heat and aggression Study: Increase temperature is higher muders/rapes per day or HBP Cognition and Thought: automatic and deliberate Switzerland?citizens= army Higher number of suicides Automatic cognitions: situational cues Weapons Effect: The tendency of weapons to increase the likelihood of aggression by their mere presence. Priming for weapons makes aggressive thoughts more accessible (Anderson, Benjamin, & Bartholow, 1998) žBerkowitz (1968): ?The finger pulls the trigger, but the trigger may also be pulling the finger.? Study: gun placed on the table, no gun on table, badminton racquet When gun there, people administer higher levels of shocks Study: Guns, testosterone, and hot sauce Huge surge of testosterone when handling the gun and theres higher level of hot sauce given Neoassociaiton thory Cues associatioed with aggressvion stimulate aggression Unpleasant experiences (pain, frustration, etc)?negative feelings?object or event with aggressive meaning, angry thoughts and assocation, and fear thoughts and assocation?fights via angry thoughts and flight via fearful thoughts Was it an insult or a joke? mitigating information? - How angry am I? - I?m angry because of that remark? - What would be the risk of retaliation? Higher cognitive thinking of whether to become aggressive or not Alcohol and Aggression Alcohol, like high arousal, can impair the cognitive control of aggression. how does alcohol increase aggression? reduces anxiety, which lowers inhibitions against aggression. Intoxication causes alcohol myopia, a disruption in the way we process information. Less able to adapt info expectancy effects Stimulated date rape and alcohol Didn?t consume is less higher than consumed alcohol Model of situational influences on emotional aggression Extent of Media Violence ?By the end of elementary school, a typical American child would have seen 8,000 murders and more than 100,000 other acts of violence. ?The most violent TV programming is directed at children in the form of cartoons and other programs. ?Children and teens are exposed to much violent content in movies, video games, virtual reality games, music videos, and song lyrics. Metanalysis?media violence and aggression with strong correlation even higher correlation than HIV and condom use Correlational Evidence: When TV is introduced into societies, violence goes up 22-year study showed that exposure to violence at age 8 predicted aggression at age 30 (boys only) Longitudinal Designs A non-experimental research design in which researchers track participants response over time. National Institue of Mental Health ?The consensus among most of the research community is that violence on television does lead to aggressive behavior by children & children who watch the programs? Television Violence Exposure to violent films increases aggressive behavior ?Boyatzis et al (1995)- Kids watched Power Rangers ?7 times more aggression than control How does exposure tomedia violence have long term effects 1. Modeling - Aggression becomes seen as more legitimate for resolving conflicts. 2. Values and expectations are changed - come to see the world as much more violent than it really is (Cultivation) 3. Desensitization [habituation] - We become desensitized to violence and therefore more accepting of aggressive behavior. Effect of video games violence on physiological desensitization Those with nonviolent video game have higher arousal Repeated exposure causes habituation and doesn?t alarm you to the same extent Pornography and Sexual Violence Laboratory experiments Study: Men exposed to nonsexual or sexually aggressive films Week later men exposed to violent films more accepting of violence against women Study: men watched neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic film In supposed unrelated study, men who watched rape film gave stronger shocks to female target. Apparently not explicit sex per se, but aggression with sex that leads to violence. Intimate Violence: Trust Betrayed Gender Alcohol (date-rape drugs) Attitudes toward rape and women in general Domestic Violence: Wife-to-husband vs. husband-to-wife violence The cycle of violence
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