Florence Nightingale (1859) defined Nursing as having
“charge of the personal health of somebody . . . . . . and what nursing has to do . . . is to put the patient in the best condition for nature to act upon him.”
Virginia Henderson (1955) defined the purpose of nursing:
“to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to a peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge. And to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible.”
American Nurse Association (1980) Nursing: A Social Policy Statement
defined nursing as “the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems.”
American Nurse Association (2003) Nursing: A Social Policy Statement, 2nd edition:
“Nursing is the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human responses, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populations.”
The nurse’s chief concern is...
the patient’s response to the problem rather than the problem itself.
Highlights for Florence
1860 she organized and developed the first program of training for nurses. She acted as chief advisor for the program. Funded by donations to her after the Crimean War [50,000 pounds in the Nightingale Fund]. One year of school + 2 years of hospital experience. Model for future nursing programs.
Died in 1910 at the age of 90.
Educational Paths to RN
1. 3-year Diploma Program (Hospital)
2. 2-year Associate Degree (College) with an LPN Ladder option
3. 4-year Bachelor Degree (College)
Regulation of Nursing
State Boards of Nursing
Standards of Nursing Practice *
Legal protections for the client
IOM 5 Core Competencies
Provide patient-centered care Collaborate with interdisciplinary health care team Implement evidence-based practice Use quality improvement in patient care Use informatics in patient care
“A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (World Health Organization, 1947) .
“A state of being that people define in relation to their own values, personality, and lifestyle” (Pender, 1996).
“A person’s level of wellness affected by internal and external factors.”
Past definition = absence of disease
Health Promotion Model states that health is a positive, dynamic state, not merely the absence of disease.
Healthy People 2010 : A systematic approach to health improvement through health promotion programs.
“A state in which a person’s physical, emotional, intellectual, social, developmental, or spiritual functioning is diminished or impaired compared with previous experience.” Perry & Potter, p. 11 Not synonymous with disease Acute illness ~ short term & severe Chronic illness ~ longer than 6 months, fluctuating levels of function
Primary prevention: True prevention Secondary Prevention: Focus on persons who are experiencing health problems Tertiary prevention: Occurs when defect or disability is permanent and irreversible
True prevention Precedes disease or dysfunction Protection from accidents (seatbelt) Protection from disease (immunization) Protection from carcinogens (no smoking)
Focus on persons who are experiencing health problems & who are at risk for developing conditions Case-finding measures (PAP smear, Tb screen) Early treatment: Limit disease progression through management (Diabetes, hypertension) Delay consequences of advanced disease (nursing home care for dementia)
Occurs when defect or disability is permanent and irreversible Rehab for spinal cord injury (prevent complications of long term disability Stroke rehab Cardiac rehab Occupational therapy for arthritis patients (specialized equipment) Medical Home Model of care
Trends in Health Care
Decreased length of hospital stay Increased home health care Increased ambulatory care Technology advances Consumer movement Increased chronic care with aging population Managed care Increasing costs
Community Based Care
Public Health Nursing: population based Community Health Nsg: community focus Community-based Nsg: nursing care of the individual or family in a community setting Caregiver – Case manager – Educator – Consultant
Want to see the other 18 Flashcards in Introduction to Nursing?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!