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Firmware is computer software that is installed into devices such as printers, print servers, and various types of communication devices. (becomes a part of computers memory)
A data-base is a collection of tables plus relationships among the rows in those tables, plus special data, called metadata, that describes the structure of the database.
In databases, bytes are grouped into columns, such as Student Number and Student Name. Columns are also called fields. Columns or fields, in turn, are grouped into rows, which are also called records. The collection of data for all columns is called a row or a record. Finally, a group of similar rows or records is called a table or a file.
user- Browser and other application tools (iOS)
sponsor- Browser and other application tools
provider- Application (NoSQL or other DBMS)
user- user generated content (tweets)
sponsor- sponsor content (ads)
provider- Content and connection data storage with rapid retrieval
Programs read production and other data and extract, clean, and prepare that data for BI processing. The prepared data are stored in a data warehouse database using a data warehouse DBMS.
Metadata concerning the data— its source, its format, its assumptions and constraints, and other facts about the data— is kept in a data warehouse metadata database. The data warehouse DBMS extracts and provides data to BI applications.
Data duplication, data inconsistency
Limited information/lack of integrated information
Isolated decisions lead to organizational inefficiencies
activity of altering and designing business processes to take advantage of new information systems. Is known to be difficult, slow, and exceedingly expensive.
Very challenging, difficult expensive, and risky to implement a new enterprise system.
A more connected and “smaller” world is in our future because of social media
User communities: Example: You, your friends, peers, co-workers
Social media sponsors: any company or organization who supports Social media by using links to FB or twitter on their page. Example: Nordstrom, Deadspin, Jimmy Johns.
Social media application providers: Example Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitt
a dynamic, SM-based CRM process. The relationships between organizations and customers emerge in a dynamic process as both parties create and process content. Each customer crafts his or her own relationship with the company. This helps understand what consumers want and what sales/marketing techniques work best. Examples: wikis, blogs, discussion lists, frequently asked questions, sites for user reviews and commentary
analysts do not create a model or hypothesis before running the analysis. Instead, they apply the data mining technique to the data and observe the results. With this method, analysts create hypotheses after the analysis to explain the patterns found.
an open-source program that enables the distributed processing of large data sets across clusters of commodity servers and which implements MapReduce.
Systems development is the process of creating and maintaining information systems.
Requirements change as the system is developed, and, the bigger the system and the longer the project, the more the requirements change.
How long will it take and how much will it cost? usually hard to tell but most times it takes a lot of time (months) and costs a lot of money
new technology can change requirements, needs, and procedures. Ex: what if the system was built to run on the Andriod but a new, far better, and more popular iPhone is released? the users and producers of the system have to be ready for changes.
the most important phase in the systems development process.
Requirements analysis to determine all requirements include: Conduct user interviews, Evaluate existing systems, Determine new Web pages/forms/reports/queries, Identify new application features and functions, Consider security, Create the data model, Consider all five components.
determine specifications for the hardware needed and the source of that hardware. Can be purchased, leased, or leased as time from a hosting service in the cloud.
Depends on the source of the programs.
Off-the- shelf software: determine candidate products and evaluate them against the requirements.
Off-the-shelf-with-alteration software: identifies products to be acquired off-the-shelf and determines the alterations required.
Custom-developed programs: produce design documentation for writing program code.
at this stage the team will decide whether they are building a thin-client or native application (all application processing can be on mobile or all in cloud or a mixture).
If developers are constructing a database, then during this phase they convert the data model to a database design. If developers are using off-the-shelf programs, the programs will handle their own database processing.
Designed by teams of systems analysts and key users.
For a business information system, the system developers and the organization must also design procedures for both users and operations personnel.
Procedures need to be developed for normal, backup, and failure recovery operations
teams of systems analysts and users determine job descriptions and functions for both, users and operations personnel.
process of converting business activity from the old system to the new.
Pilot: implement entire system on a limited portion of business.
Phased: implement parts of the system at a time.
Parallel: implement new system while old is still in use. (very expensive/time consuming)
Plunge: implement the entire new system to the whole business at once. (not recommended)
EAI is a suite of software applications that integrates existing systems by providing layers of software that connect applications together.
Connects system “islands” via a new layer of software/ system.
Enables existing applications to communicate and share data.
Provides integrated information.
Leverages existing systems-leaving functional applications as is, but providing an integration layer over the top.
It enables a gradual move to ERP.
The major benefit of EAI: enables organizations to use existing applications while eliminating many of the serious problems of isolated systems. Converting to an EAI system: not disruptive as converting to ERP, provides many of the benefits of ERP.
Hardware, Software, Database, Procedure, Job Descriptions
4. Lock in customers and buyers
5. Lock in suppliers
6. Raise barriers to market entry
7. Establish alliances
8. Reduce costs
user- any user computing device (phone/laptop)
sponsor- any user computing device (phone/laptop)
provider- Cloud-based server
A business with a differentiation strategy will add cost to an activity only as long as the activity has a positive margin-(The difference between the value that an activity generates and the cost of the activity)
a program used to create, process, and ad-minister a database. As with operating systems, almost no organization develops its own DBMS. Example: SQL
Reports are for output. Anything you plan to print deserves a report, whether it is a list of names and addresses, a financial summary for a period, or a set of mailing labels.
a collection of computers that communicate with one another over transmission lines or wirelessly.
is the most important protocol in the transport layer. One easily understood function, however, is that TCP programs break your traffic up into pieces and send each piece along its way. It then works with TCP programs on other devices in the internet to ensure that all of the pieces arrive at their destination. If one or more pieces are lost or damaged, TCP programs detect that condition and cause retransmission of that piece. Hence, the TCP layer is said to provide reliable internet transport.
social media sponsors,
social media application providers
Encryption is the process of transforming clear text into coded, unintelligible text for secure storage or communication.
software that monitors computing habits and sends that data to someoneelse other often without the user’s permission
§ Lock in customers and buyers
· Difficult or expensive for customers to switch to another product- switching costs
§ Lock in suppliers
§ Raise barriers to market entry
· Make it difficult and expensive for new competition to enter the market
§ Establish alliances
§ Reduce costs
The cloud is the elastic leasing of pooled computer resources that are accessed via Internet protocols. Definition explained below..
Elastic: the amount of resources leased can be increased or decreased dynamically, programmatically, in a short span of time and that organizations pay for just the resources that they use.
Pooled: many different organizations use the same physical hardware; they share that hardware through virtualization.
Internet protocols: additions to TCP/ IP that enable cloud- hosting vendors to provide processing capabilities in flexible, yet standardized, ways.