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Michigan State University
ISB Fall 2010 Final Review Q's
ISB Fall 2010 Final Review Q's
Michigan State University
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When one species of organisms is eliminated from the biosphere, why are other species affected?
Just like plants, most animals are autotrophic, right?
False, They are heterotrophic
About how many million species of animals are known to exist?
Most animal species are invertebrates. True or False?
Most animals exhibit bilateral symmetry. What type of symmetry is exhibited by things like starfish?
What animal is responsible for producing most of the limestone that exists on Earth?
We don’t get tapeworms from chicken meat, so is eating under-cooked chicken safe?
no you will still get sick
What phylum of animals was first to have a complete digestive system?
What phylum of animals was the first to have organs?
What phylum of animals was the first to have tissues
What phylum of animals has no tissues or organs and also lacks symmetry?
What does “coelum” mean? What phylum of animals was the first to have coelomate bodies?
It means "body cavity", Mollusks were the first to have them
There are 11 phyla of animals, ranging from the sponges to the “highest form,” the __________.
Blood flukes are flatworms that cause shistosomiasis in humans, especially in developing countries.
What other animal is involved in the reproductive cycle of blood flukes?
While there may be fewer species of them, how does the number of individual roundworms (nematodes)
on Earth compare to the number of insects?
There are a greater amount of Roundworms than insects
One kind of roundworm plugs the lymph system of humans, leading to a disease called _____________.
What is the major way in which humans get tapeworms?
beef, pork and fish
What slimy little garden creature is a common example of the mollusk phylum of animals?
The annelid phylum is composed of creatures with segmented bodies. What type of annelid is seen on
MSU sidewalks in the early spring months after rainy nights?
Which phylum makes up over half of the total known species of animals in the world? (Insects are part
of this phylum!)
What “crustacean” is included in the name of a U.S. national restaurant chain?
Does a millipede really have a thousand legs?
no they may have hundreds but not a thousand
Do sharks have bones?
No they are
Besides having a backbone, some sort of major nerve cord, a pharynx for breathing and eating, what
else do vertebrates have (at least in the embryonic stage)?
What were the first vertebrates on land? (Hint: They still need water to moisten their skins and to
. Reptiles likely arose from amphibians. Do reptiles have to rely on water for fertilization of eggs?
Are the shells of reptilian eggs hard or soft?
they are soft and leathery
Of all organisms, birds are the only ones with feathers. True or False?
Mammals get their name from the Latin word, “mamma,” which means what?
What is the only mammal that can truly fly?
Do any mammals lay eggs?
yes some do lay eggs
Placental animals are mammals, but marsupial animals aren’t, right?
they are mammals.
The 3 types are
Monotremes (egg laying)
Where is the greatest concentration of marsupial species today?
In placental animals, does the mother’s blood mix with that of the fetus?
Of the 2,000,000 known species of animals, about how many species are mammals?
What is “ecology?”
the study of interactions of living things with each
other and with their environment
What is the difference between an ecologist and an environmentalist?
Environmentalists – want to preserve nature
Ecologists – study nature
A “population” of a species is whatever we define it to be, right?
True, Population – a group of individuals
May be local, e.g. number of frogs in a pond --
-- or in 2 ponds –
-- or in a state – or in 2 states.
An ecosystem includes the organisms and all of the abiotic factors. What does abiotic mean?
non-living (abiotic) factors in the system.
E.g. of abiotic factors‖
chemical nutrients, etc
What does the word “niche” mean?
the position or function
of an organism in a community of plants and/or
animals‖ or simply ―where it fits in.‖
What are the four major ways in which species interact?
1) Predation – keeps the ecosystem in balance
2) Parasitism – one benefits, the other loses
3) Mutualism – each benefits (symbiosis)
4) Commensalism – one benefits w/o hurting the other
What is commensalism?
Commensalism – one benefits w/o hurting the other
E.g.: Epiphytes (aerophytes) –
don’t hurt the trees but do get
some moisture from their bark.
What is implied by the word, “sustainability?”
in terms of money ―Sustainability – living from the ―interest and not from
Technically speaking, is littering environmental degradation?
environmental degradation is
when use of a resource exceeds the replacement rate. , so the answer is no
What is the difference between “point” and “non-point” pollutants? Which is easier to handle?
Point source** – specific source can be identified
e.g., a factory or sewage treatment plant (*easier to handle***)
Non-point source – sources may be multiple and
harder to identify
What are the three major factors that determine how harmful a pollutant is? (Toxicity is one of them.)
1) Degree of toxicity – how much does it take to do
3) Persistence – how long it lasts in the environment
What was Rev. Thomas Malthus’ theory about population and food supply?
Population would increase geometrically. while the Food supply would increase arithmetically. " food supply would run out before humans"
Why was Malthus not correct about the date at which mass starvation would occur?
huge advances in:
1) agricultural sciences (much more food on ~ the
same amount of land
2) contraceptives and other birth control measures
3) communication of knowledge
How does Malthus’ theory look at the present time?
There is a huge correlation between
population, poverty and environmental degradation!!
How many more people are born than die each second?
One birth every.................................. 8 seconds
One death every.................................. 12 seconds
About what portion of the population growth in the next 25 years will occur in developing countries?
65% Growth in Developing Countries
What is the upper limit (%) of population growth in the human species?
In what two areas of the world are population increases causing the most problems?
Africa and South America
Can we feed all of the people in the world in the year 2020? (Careful!!!!)
From a latitude standpoint, where do 2/3 of the world’s people live? With respect to that area, where is
most of the food produced?
Along the equator, 2/3 of World’s food production is 30-45° North
What type of “reproductive strategy” is characterized by long lives of individuals that respond to a fixed
amount of resources?
K species, they stay in equilibrium with their resources.
Flies, mosquitoes, rats, (and many others), all have what kind of reproductive strategy?
R species, they are opportunists!!
From an environmental niche standpoint, are humans “generalists” or “specialists?”
Humans are ―generalists!!
In the environmental degradation equation, PxAxT, what does each letter represent?
P = population (number of people)
A = amount (units of resources) used per person
T = level of ―technology‖ (amount of degradation/unit of
There is a very high correlation between population, poverty and environmental degradation!
Would you rather live in a country with a pyramidal or one with a columnar population growth
one with a columnar population growth
What is the fertility rate for zero population growth in developing countries? In developed countries?
For developed countries, it is 2.1**
For developing countries, it is 2.5**
What are the two major reasons for increasing the educational levels of women in developing countries?
a) control the population
b) produce 50 - 80%of the food in developing
Women are responsible for producing about how much of the food in developing countries?
50 - 80%
Please name a lot of environmental degradation problems for which humans (and population growth)
Wastes –solid & hazardous
Food production issues
What is the troposphere? Is that were the ozone layer is?
the lowest layer of our atmosphere, No the ozone layer is in the stratosphere
Is ozone good or bad?
It depends,Near Earth’s surface, it’s
an air pollutant and
But, there is an ozone
layer in the stratosphere that serves as a
Is the production of global warming gases an east-west or a north-south problem?
North/South , more is made above the equator
Why will malaria incidence likely increase with global warming?
Because malaria carrying mosquitoes will be able to live longer in certain areas because the areas are warmer longer due to global warming
About how fast are the rain forests disappearing?
Rainforests are disappearing at about 17 m ha/year
That’s about 50 million acres ….
… or an area the size of a football or soccer field….
every second of every day!!!
What is the relationship between population, wealth and use of natural resources between developed and
-- have 20%of the population
-- have 85%of the world’s wealth
-- use ~ 90%of the natural resources
-- generate 75% of the pollution and wastes
….and 90% of the toxic wastes!!
What sector is responsible for the majority of solid wastes produced in the U.S.?
What is the number one ground water pollutant in the U.S.?
About what percent of the water on Earth is salt water in oceans?
What does the word “riparian” mean?
Is the Ogallala aquifer in the central U.S. one that is readily rechargeable?
no, once its gone its gone
How much of the fresh water in the world is found in the five Great Lakes of the U.S.?
What are monocropping, desertification, waterlogging and salinization?
Monocropping- is the agricultural practice of growing the same crop year after year on the same land, without crop rotation through other crops
Desertification – degradation of land with a ↑ in productivity
Waterlogging-too much irrigation; not enough drainage
salinization-salts left from evaporation of irrigation water
How does the literacy rate of women compare to that of men in most developing countries
What is the major global warming gas? What are the two main sources of increases in this gas?
CFC, coolant in some refrigeration
units and in some
Besides water vapor, what are the five “greenhouse effect” gases in our atmosphere?
CH4, O3, CO2, N2O, CFC
What is the major source of methane pollution in the U.S.?
Landfills – from all of us!!!!
-- Livestock manure – from agriculture
What are the three main causes of biodiversity depletion in the world?
1. Introduced (non-native) species
2. Overexploitation due to:
-- commercial fishing/whaling
-- killing animals that prey on livestock
-- killing for ―trophies,‖ e.g., rhinoceros horn
3. Habitat destruction – usually by humans!!
What human activities are happening in many large animal preserves that are ruining the habitats that
were set up to protect endangered species of animals?
Slash and burn, deforestation, ect
The population of pandas in China is increasing in the Wolong Nature Reserve in China. True or false?
About what percent of the species of soil bacteria have been classified?
Why is classifying the unknown soil bacteria and learning more about them a good idea?
What’s “bad” about monocropping, especially in LDCs?
it leaves the land bare for part of the year.. and deforestation, over grazing
What industry is responsible for about 2/3 of the world’s annual fresh water use?
What portion of the world’s population earns only about $1 U.S. dollar per year?
What portion of the world’s population earns only about $2 U.S. dollars per year?
When discussing pesticides in the environment, what is “biological magnification?”
A cumulative increase in the concentrations of a persistent substance in successively higher levels of the food chain.
Is a detritivor autotrophic or heterotrophic?
What is your ISB 202 instructor’s one-word answer to most of the problems humans face?
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