Contraction of the Abramic term 'al ilah' which mans 'the god'
used by Muslms and arabic speaking Christians and Jews to refer to God
-Plain where the Talibayah is recited
-9th day of the Hajj, climax
Sunnis regard him as Muhammad's first rightful successor/Caliph
-Muhammad's uncle and guardian, who never became a muslim
-Site of the treaty made between Meccans and Muslims in 628 CE
-Muslims would not invade
-Meccans would allow Muslims to come once a year
-Future figure who will prepare the way for Jesus' return prior to the resurrection
- unknown figure for Sunnis
-Hidden imam named Muhammed Al Mahdi for Shi'ites
-successors to Muhammed
-NOt considered prophets, but political leaders
-last month of the Islamic calendar year
-the month of the Hajj
-Personal prayer in addition to Salat-
-Similar to LDS idea of personal prayer
traditions concerning the sayings of actions of Muhammad
the pilgrimage to Mecca, which is to be made once in a person's lifetime if financially and physically possible;
-one of the five pillars
-Muhammads' emigration from Mecca to Yathrib in 622 CD (Night Migration)
-marks the beginning of the Muslim Calendar
two white cotton cloths worn by male Muslims on their pilgrimage to Mecca. Symbolic of the state of purity that all pilgrims assume while on the Hajj.
-Prayer leader in all forms of Islam
-One of the 12 Shi'ite leaders with both political and religious authority.
'submission' or surrender to God
-Literally meaning 'striving' or 'struggling' to sere god and the umma.
-sometimes involves armed struggle against outside agression
-In Arabic legend, a spirit often capable of assuming human or animal form with supernatural power (genie)
-good or ad (legends also contain angels adn ghouls)
-the black draped cubicle structure in Mecca which contains the black stone and which according to legend was built by Abraham and his son Ishmael.
-the first wife of Muhammed
-First person to covert to Islam, very supportive
-One of two small hills (the other=al Safa) located in Mecca, between which Muslims walk rapidly back adn forth seven times during the Haji. (Sa'y)
-Most sacred place of Islam
-birthplace of Muhammad
-location of the Ka'bah
-Shortened from 'Madinat Al-Nabi" meaning 'city of the prophet'
-second holiest site in Islam
-Formerly Yathrib, to which Muhammed fled in 622 CE and ruled, establishing many basic institutions of Islam
-Muhammed was buried here
-in a mosque, a niche or decorative panel designating the direction of the a'bah
-Site half way between Mecca and Arafat where various ceremonies take palce during the Hajj.
-tower on a mosque from which the call to prayer is given
-means 'place of prostration' for the ritual prayers.
-center for Islamic communal life where prayers are held, religious educaton conducted, and charitable service provided.
individual who gives call to pray
a person who practices Islam, means literally 'one who submits to God'
-Journey in 620 CE when Muhammad was flown on a winged from Mecca to Jerusalem and then taken into the presence o God
escape from Mecca to Yathrib in 622
Night of power
night of Muhammad's call when Gabriel appeared to him.
-means 'recitation' or 'reading'
-holy book of islam, which is the mind and will of Allah delivered to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel
-the dominant rive of Mecca
-it was both the tribe to which Muhammed belonged and his chief antagonist in the Muslim-Quraysh Wars
Al Safa and Al Marwa are two small hills located in Mecca, between which Muslims walk rapidly back and forth seven times during the Hajj. (sa'y).
-prayers said five times a day
-one of hte five pillars
-fast during the month of Ramadan (daylght hours)
-time of introspeciton, seeking forgiveness, almsgiving
-the 27th day of Ramada is the Night of Power
-One of hte pillars of Islam
ritual walking quickly back and forth between the hills Marwah and Safa' commemorating Hagar's frantic search for water.
-the Muslim's confession of fatih: 'there is no God but God and Muhammad is his messenger'
-first of hte five pillars
the all inclusive legal ode of Islam
Muslims who believe that leadership of the community should have passed to Muhammad's son in law Ali and should be hereditary.
-mystic group who try to recapture Muhammad's experience of oneness wth deity
-some become ascetic
-spinning in rituals-- 'whirling dervishes'
-among sunnis and shi'ites
- the majority sect of Islam who believe Abu Bakr was the rightful successor to Muhammad because he was the senior disciple. they reject the Shi'ite claim that lineage determines a person's right to lead the umma.
-recitation on the plain of Arafat
-the climax of the Hajj
the world wide community of Muslims
original name of hte city to which the prophet moved in 622 CE and which is now called Medina
the practice of giving 2.5 percent of one's accumulated wealth to support the umma, embodiment of the principle of charitable giving
-one of the five pillars
well near the Ka'bah in Mecca which appeared in response to Hagar and Ishmael's need for water
father died before birht, mother died at 6, grandfather kept him briefly. His uncle, Abu Talib, a caravaer, raised him.
worked for a woman named Khadija (400 running her caravans-- she proposed marriage- happy marriage
muhammed was concerned with society
polytheism and idolatry
night of power
gabriel called muhamad recite.
Muhammad meccan period 610-622
-muhammad challenged social problems
-received revelation, reited surras
-the Quraysh tribe persecuted Mohammad
-Khadja died 619
-night Journey 620- was taken to Jerusalem and into the presenc of God
-was invited to rule Yathrib
-clans in Mecca plotted assassination, and Muslims left. 622 CE
Muhammad Medinan Period
with unrestricted power in Yathrib (renamed Medina), Muhammad was able to establish the institutions of Islam
- erected 1st Mosque
-weekly services on friday
-protestation during prayer
-call to prayer
-taking walms for poor and cause
-warfare with mecca because they had been wronged
-628 CE al hudabiyyah- truce, however, in 630 trive allied with Meccans attacked tribe allied with Muslims-- which broke the turce
-muslims quicly gained power because the persian and byzantine empires were weakened by war
five pillars of islam
Shahada- confession of faith
Salah or Salat- prayer
hajj- pilgrimage to Mecca
muslim confession of faith
-"there is no God but God, and Muhammad is hs Messenger"
-used as call to prayer
-sense of God's identity is similar ot Christians'
-5 times a day
-must wash befor epraying
-on Friday say special prayers
-Du'a, personal prayer similar to our idea of prayer, communicating with God without ritual.
-to tkae care of the poor and support the religious community
-Purifies the remainder for your use.
fasting during ramadam
-a monthh of hte lunar Hijra calendar
-no food, drink, or entertainment during daylight
-intense readig of hte Quran
pilgimage to Mecca
-all who are financially and physically able must do it
-takes place in teh last month, Dhu-l-Hijjah
-Men wears a seamless white garment, representing
Events of the Hajj
-d 1: the 8th of Chu-l-hijjah- crcumab of the Ka'bah and personal prayer, drink from Zamzam, Sa'y between Safa' and Marwah
-d 2: recitation of Talbiyah, standing on plain Arafat
-D 3: gather 49-70 pebbles, throw them at the pillar of Satan at Mina, animal sacrifice between day 3-6, return to Mecca and circumamb. the Ka'bath
-d 4,5,6: at mina, each day throw 7 stones at each of the three illars, new covering is put on the ka'bah, final circumamb.
end of req. part, some leave on 12t
d 11-13- party
3 islamic groups
sunnis: largest group of islam 85%: followed Abu Bakr as first Caliph
Shi'ites: 15% but a majority in some countires (iran, iraq)- followed Ali whom they view as the first Imam
Sufis: Mystic within Islam- seek what Muhammad experienced--trance, revelation, amongst the sunnis and shi'ites, some use a whirling dance 'dirvishes'
sunni history/ important figures
abu bakr- Caliphs
ali- husan abdicated, husayn assassinated
waiting for 9unknown) Al Mahdi
Shi'ite History/important figures
abu bakr, umar, uthman
12 or 7 others, the last of which (muhammad Al Mahdi) went into hiding- known through babs
-muhammad Al Mahdi will return
don't treat with harshness though obed. is expected
dowry is proteted and given from teh man
wealth flows from teh man's family ot the woman, unlike early Arabic trad
women are protected
sons inherit twice what daughters inherit- but what the daughters inherit is theirs- what hte man inherits is his but he must ust it to support his sisters and wife
woman's role is primarily in the home
other practices are cultural, not based on teh Quran, and ary by nation, by famly and by individual.
'sturggle' or 'striving'
-daily striving for personal improvement
-may apply the holy war if hte faith is threatened
-highly misrepresented in teh media.
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