Islamic Jihads in the Western Sudan Origins: the Fulbe Muslim leaders who started Islamic jihad movement were Fulbe (early 19th century) Fulbe ? mainly pastoralist, were under increasing pressure from settled agricultural population and their rulers, often resented as intruders, grazing lands/trading rights restricted, subjected to increasingly heavy demands for tribute and taxation. Their isolation might help explain why many Fulbe turned to Islam Partly through contact with Muslim traders of the towns and Tuareg pastoralists of the Sahel Islam gave Fulbe an added sense of unity and purpose Shari?a = Islamic Law (Shari?a provided alternative model of government with which to compare and confront their rulers) Early 18th Century ? a number of Fulbe Muslim clans were rivaling the Tuareg as ?the leading Islamic scholars of West Africa? Conversion of ?unbeliever? was an essential part of Muslim duty Fulbe Muslim teachers preached jihad against the infidel The jihads of Futa Jalon and Futa Toro African jihads of 18th and early 19th centuries began in the highlands of Futa Jalon (now modern state of Guinea) Fulbe pastoralists settled in these highlands from early 1500s Local farming population organized in a series of small village chiefdoms As herds increased in size, Fulbe felt the pressure of the restrictions and taxation of the farmers, but found salvation in Islam 1725 ? Fulbe rose in rebellion against rulers, had support of Muslim traders they waged ?holy war? against the pagan settled farmers 1750 ? conquest was complete Brought region under Islamic law and created a Fulbe-dominated state Their wars of conquest produced a surplus of captives who were sold into slavery The Futa Jalon jihad inspired a similar movement in Futa Toro to the south of lower Senegal 1769-1776 Muslim Tukolor and Fulbe waged successful jihad and established a new Muslim state under Shari?a Usman dan Fodio and the founding of the Sokoto caliphate Early 19th century ? series of jihads were waged within the Hausa states of northern regions of modern Nigeria From these jihads emerged The Sokoto Caliphate (or empire) - the largest single West African state of early 19th century Usman dan Fodio Leader and inspirer of the Sokoto jihad Though Usman never went on a pilgrimage to mecca, was widely educated Muslim scholar Began his preaching in Gobir in the 1770s Had two main concerns: 1. Conversion of the Fulani pastoralists who still clung to their indingenous religious beliefs 2. The religious and social reform of the nominally Muslim Hausa rulers Had a reputation of a holy man 1790s ? considerable amount of followers at Degel (near border of Gobir) His growing power and influence was resented by rulers in Gobir Early 1800s = Crisis King Yunfa tried to assassinate Usman, then jihad began in 1804 Revolution quickly spread Wasn?t a single jihad but a series of simultaneous Islamic risings against the rule of Hausa aristocracy 1808- capital of Gobir captured Hausa rulers fell b/c the failed to gain support of oppressed Hausa peasantry 1817 ? Usman died Sokoto empire stretched from Songhay in the west to the headwaters of Benue of the East The Sokoto caliphate Empire consisted of a number of separate Muslim emirates that acted independently in local matters (but took religious authority from the caliph at Sokoto) Since it was an Islamic religious state, political power was equated with religious authority Emirs visited Sokoto once a year to show loyalty to the caliph and submit an annual tribute Islam and literacy spread more widely through the population Unity of Islam brought an end to destructive wars Slavery remained an essential part of the economic life of the Sokoto Caliphate Borno in the 19th Century Long and deep Islamic tradition Not ripe for religious revolution Kanuri of Borno not ready to accept Fulani domination Muhammad al-Kanemi Remarkable religious leader Organized resistance and protested to the caliph of Sokoto that Borno was already an Islamic State Introduced religious and legal reforms in Borno 1837 ? dude dieddddd, his son Umar succeeded him as religious leader (shehu) Shehu Umar Became undisputed ruler Borno never regained former position of wealth and prominence The Tukolor empire of al-Hajj Umar 1818 ? Tukolor jihad was led by a muslim preacher from Futa Toro named al-Hajj Umar Umar?s Tokolor jihad followed a much more positive pattern of military conquest and Islamic state-creation 1826 ? Umar set off on a lengthy pilgrimage to Mecca 1840s- Umar built up a large following on the bordrs of Futa Jalon Traded non-muslim captives in exchange for guns Was unable to capture his home region of Futa Toro b/c of French presence Samori Toure and the rise of the Madinka Empire South of the Tukolor Empire Arose the Mandinka Empire of Samori Toure 1860s ? he built up a trained force of well-armed soldiers to protect the trading interests of his family His family was engaged in trade in gold-dust from Bure and cattle from Futa Jalon Under Samori?s leadership they used their connections to import firearms from coast and to strengthen their army 1865-1875 ? Samori conquered surrounding Dyula States and built up a powerful Mandinka Kingdom Unity he established eased trade and brought greater prosperity to the merchants Used Islam to unite and strengthen his kingdom 1870s- Samori extended conquests 1880s- he turned trading kingdom into huge empire (the 3rd largest in W. Africa, after Sokoto and Tukolor) Besides the spread of Islam, strength of Samori?s army was major unifying factor in the Creation of Mandinka empire Downfall = Samori?s Mandinka empire was short lived Constantly engaged in defending conquests 1881 ? Mandinka had their first clash with the French Mandinka army was one of the major forces of resistance t0 French conquest in W. Africa and in final decade of the century
Want to see the other 3 page(s) in Islamic_Jihads_in_the_West..docx?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!