why is it said that the U.S. has a dual court system?
This is the division between the federal courts and the state courts. This keeps the federal and state power balanced.
what is the meaning of the concept of jurisdiction?
A jurisdiction is an area with a set of laws under the control of a system of courts which are different to neighboring areas. Unitary states usually form single jurisdictions, whilst each state in a federal state forms a seperate jurisdiction.
what are federal constitutional courts?
According to Article III of the Contstitution, the judicial power of the U.S. shall be in one supreme court. These courts have the power specified in Article III, they hear cases and controversies , the judges hold office for life.
what are federal legislative courts?
According to Article I, this is Congress' power when it comes to judicial review. They have whatever jurisdiction they deem appropriate.
what is the meaning of the doctring of "presumption of validity?"
An assumption that a patent is sound in law and valid.
what is the "common law"?
Case Law, or precendent. Law developed by judges through decisions of courts and similar tribunal rather than through legislative statutes or executive branches action.