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Information technology ____, everywhere.
the ones who use computers and are called-end user, without this, computer is just a box, smart, computers are not
the knowledge that enables a person to understand something
something with a practical use and expected outcome
There are two basic categories of software: ___ software and ___ software.
Business application software is not just the domain of software suites. Two application software not typically included in software suites but just as important to business are browser ___ and ___ software.
Operating System (OS)
Object embedding is ___, and only ___.
Will Google Earth become Google Live?
Yes, satellites clicking few indistinct images from space will be replaced by live cameras fed directly to Google
Technology, inventions, concepts, and knowledge are advancing so fast that it is simply an
Information technology is firmly based in
Information technology is the study, design development, implementation support, and management of computer-based information systems, particularly ____ and ____.
Without ____, a computer is just a plastic box of microchips and wires.
Smarter people will have a decided advantage over those who mistakenly assume a computer is ____.
____ is the knowledge that enables a person to understand something.
____ towards information technology plays a pivotal role towards gaining computer competency.
A computer should never be thought of as a mysterious box with a mind of its own; it is plainly a tool whose boundaries are only limited by the ___ and ___ of its user.
Critically thinking people have the ___ to understand a task can always be done better and more efficiently, and this same thinking can be applied to business computing as well.
___ is a way of thinking that involves analysis and evaluation and includes considering all possible outcomes in order to form a solid decision.
A(n) ___ in computing is something with a practical use and expected outcome.
___ to accomplish a task can be counterproductive to the learning process.
___ are by far the best resources when learning a computing system.
___, one of the founding fathers of Intel made the astounding observation in 1965 called ___.
Another term for a leader is a ___.
Some organizations hold off buying new technology and wait for it to improve from its original version and also deciding there is no competitive advantage to be gained. These businesses are called ___.
How does the pharmaceutical company know if they will get a competitive advantage?
Today’s astounding technology with promises of competitive advantages can be tomorrow’s ___.
To prepare for a career in business, it becomes important to understand information technology and its ___.
It’s a misnomer to think you need to know ___ about IT.
___ is the tangible or physical aspects of a computer, like circuit boards, chipsets, and keyboards.
___ rarely changes during the life of a computer, but certain components can be added on to enhance its power and usability.
___ are massive room-sized computers that process and store enormous amounts of bulk data and information, and are typically used by very large organizations like credit card processers that employ them for transaction processing and vital applications.
Mainframes require a huge amount of ___.
___ computers (sometimes called minicomputers) are less powerful and smaller in physical size than mainframe computers, but do many of the same things, simply on a smaller scale.
___ are smaller than mainframes and midrange computers, and are so common that they are most commonly referred to as simply computers, and sometimes just referred to as a box.
They are the least powerful computers in terms of processing and come in three typical configurations; A ___, ___, and ___.
Handheld computers often referred to as ___ or ___ are compact, but far less powerful than desktops or laptops.
Hardware is the physical part of the computer and ___ is collection of computer programs that accomplish a specific task.
When a computer is turned on, hundreds of routines or programs run properly and begin to become useful to the end-user, and typically, with no ___.
The most important aspects of system software is that an operating system is enabled and becomes a ___ for ___ to work.
An ___ is the software that manages the resources of a computer, like memory and application programs.
___, often called a ___ is a collection of computer programs working together that manage the hardware and software of a computer so they work properly.
Some of the more popular platforms in today’s market are:
One of the most important jobs of an OS is file management; a way ___ to the memory of a computer.
Microsoft Windows represents its file management system visually with a ___ environment.
A ___ is a part of an operating system that a computer uses to display the filing system.
When a computer can run more than one process at a time it is referred to as __.
___ is a type of memory that allows data to be accessed in any order without physical movement of the silicone media.
___ is memory the operating system uses to coordinate, track, and efficiently allocate the use of CPU cache, registers, RAM, and disk storage.
___ is non-volatile, secondary storage that is recorded to a physical device, like a hard drive or optical disk with a read/write apparatus.
The ___ directs the read/write arm of the hard drive to where data exists and accesses it upon the user’s request.
Application software is extremely powerful, and often ___ by most computer users.
Commercial application software has been developed by hundreds, even thousands of people and is constantly evolving to meet the infinite needs of the end-user, so the chances of application software not fulfilling a user’s needs are ___.
The most commonly used application software in businesses are:
___ is the programs that enable a computer to work.
Application software is designed to serve the user and carry out whatever task ___, like create a document or a spreadsheet.
Business computing software is concerned with four basic applications, ____, ____, ____, and ____ software, many times sold as a software suite, or application suite.
Software suite manufacturers like Microsoft who makes Office 2010 know it can be more ___ to buy suites as one large package than to buy software individually.
___towards application software is as important as is it when learning a computing system.
Commercial application software on today’s market are simply astounding tools, often ___ by most users.
Simply concluding that word processing software only creates, edits, and updates documents like resumes and contracts would be close-minded and ultimately a ___.
An important and very powerful characteristic of a productivity suite is the capability to ___ between application software.
Productivity suites offer three ways of sharing data and information. The most basic is ___.
Object ___ is similar to object embedding, but differs in one very important way. Object linking is ___.
A ___ is an application software used to create, compose, edit, format, and print documents.
___ is another very powerful word processor that allows a user to create, edit, format, and print portable document files (PDF) and has enormous business implications.
___ is an electronic grid of columns and rows often used to create, model, and manipulate numerical and often financial information.
Many businesses would argue that spreadsheets are the most powerful and useful business application software because of its ability to model financial information and perform “___” analysis.
___ software is a collection of related files called tables that consist of records (rows) of data separated by fields (columns) that can be queried to produce subsets of information.
Browsers also include ___, which is a clickable navigation element that lets the user navigate from one web page to another.
A ___ is simply two or more computers connected together for resource sharing and communication.
___ refer to computer files, folders, software, and also peripheral hardware like printers, scanners, webcams, etc.
It requires ___ and ___ to truly leverage its vast potential, and in the business environment where stakes are high, the smartest and brightest typically win.
In business, it may seem inconsequential to know the physical inner workings of a microcomputer’s system unit until you’re called upon to purchase hundreds of computers to replace hundreds of old computer, which is not ___.
You don’t have to be an expert at system units, just an ___ when they relate to business.
The system unit is the main body of a computer, containing a ___.
The system unit is the inner workings or insides of a computer, essentially everything inside the ___.
Purchasing ten computers can be a daunting decision, so a misinformed choice can be ___ to a business.
On the inside of a microcomputer, the core component is the ___ commonly referred to as the ___.
A motherboard is the primary ___.
A circuit board, sometimes called a ___, is a logical and economical way to replace what would be loose wiring by applying copper wires directly to a sheet of non conductive plastic.
Contained within the microprocessor is the ___.
The ___ is what gives a microcomputer the ability to be programmed.
A microcomputer’s speed is measured by ___.
The first truly useful personal computers processed ___ bits at a time, eventually doubling to ___ bits, then ___ bits, and then to ___ bit.
Microprocessor manufacturers are constantly trying to improve processing speed, and one novel way is through the development of ___, which are simply many chips encased on one chip package working together.
___ architecture chips are designed for efficiency, and were the first 64 bit processors.
A two state system on a computer is called ___.
Binary means something is made up of two parts, and in a computer, either a “___” or a “___”.
When eight bits are combined, they become a ___.
Most microcomputers use the ___ coding scheme.
A PSU typically converts 100-120 volt or 220-240 volt ___ current to a lower voltage ___ current that can be used by the internal components of the system unit.
___ holds information electronically stored on a computer like data files, programming, and software.
In a computing system, primary storage can be analogized as what a ___ and secondary storage is ___ when they are finished.
Data and information pre-loaded on a computer that requires no user interaction is stored in ___ storage.
In the “motherboard as land” analogy, primary and secondary storage are like ___ and ___.
Primary storage can be analogized as a place inventory (memory) is ___ before it is put away and secondary storage is where inventory (memory) is ___ after processing.
In the system unit, primary storage is ___.
RAM is ___ memory, which means it does not retain its data and information after the computer is turned off.
All data and information in RAM must be saved to ___ if it is to be retained.
Secondary storage, like a hard disk
The programming information to perform this startup task resides in a chip called a ___.
Complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor, or CMOS
Since the programming on ROM chips is unchangeable, they are sometimes called ___.
Secondary storage is ___ which means it retains its data and information even when the system unit loses power, and is somewhat slower than primary storage as it does not have a direct connection to the microprocessor.
Motherboards have expansion slots to receive ___.
In the system unit, a ___ is a specific outlet that serves as a connection, or interfaces between a computer and other devices like digital cameras, keyboards, or printers and provides signal transfer, or communication between the computer and the device.
Ports use a system called ___ which are designed so a device automatically works when it is plugged in to a system unit, which has not always been the case.
Devices that plug into computer systems units can be categorized as either an input device, or an output device, and are often called ___.
A computer understands only one real language called ___ or ___.
___ is data and information that enters a computer system and ___ for processing.
___ is data and information that exits a computer system and ___ for a human to comprehend.
When a computer provides data and information to an end-user, it is called ___.
When a computer is powered up, hundreds of system software programs automatically run to configure the computer so it operates as it was intended. One of the main tasks of these system programs is to load the ___.
___ is small, very quick memory because it stores copies of information and data from the most regularly used parts main memory.
___ is primary storage. RAM is a type of storage that allows stored data to be accessed in any (random) order without physical movement of the storage media.
Secondary storage is typically ___ than primary storage but usually has higher storage capacity which makes it ideal for storing data and information.
___ are extremely fast very small amounts of memory used to quicken the implementation of computer programs by providing access to commonly used calculated values.
___ is memory the operating system uses to coordinate, track, and efficiently allocate the use of CPU cache, registers, RAM, and disk storage. Virtual memory is actually a technique that lets application programs like a spreadsheet use fragmented pieces of memory and makes it easier for large applications to use physical memory.
A sort of table of contents for the disk is called a ___.
Files are displayed in a ___, in a computer system, sometimes called a tree. A hierarchy is a way to rank and organize files.
Computers that are not connected to any other computer are referred to as ___.
Operating systems need to be able to offer networking, and do so through a set of rules called ___.
Operating systems are in charge of ___ that are computer programs that allow peripheral hardware devices like printers or scanners to interface with a computer system and work properly.
___ refers to a computing system or device that performs a dedicated function.
___ is when software’s source code or programming is open to anyone who cares to access and perhaps even modify it.
The software developer’s main asset is her ___, essentially her innate ability to create business solution software that is better than anyone else can produce, or at least good enough to be very profitable.
Once a product or software for instance is accepted by the market, it is called ___.
Leading and following are considered ___, and one is not better than the other, although each has its advantages and disadvantages.
An ___ or ___ is the most important system software, without which application software cannot exist.
Computer ___ is the variety of ways a computer system can store (save) data and information.
___ includes things like desks, computers, tractors, and other physical items.
___ is the legal claim a business has to names, inventions, and ideas.
In the past, companies kept their information on ___ which was easily lost, like being consumed in a fire, or simply misplaced.
is primary storage that is temporary and volatile.
Secondary storage is ___ which means it retains its data and information even after the computer system is turned off.
Secondary storage memory is ___ directly accessible to the central processing unit (CPU) of the computer so it needs to make use of input/output channels.
Microcomputer systems are ___.
Binary means something is made up of two parts, and in a computer’s case, either a “___” or a “___”.
Most microcomputers use the ___ coding scheme to represent bytes.
Not all computing systems use ASCII; larger computers like mainframes which are typically extremely large data processing systems use a coding scheme called ___.
Some computing systems are designed to support international languages like Chinese and Japanese which need to deal with special characters other than the English alphabet, these computers use a code scheme called ___.
A storage device needs a ___ head to scan across the surface of a spinning disk to record and/or access data and information.
Like a record, a track is a concentric circular band around the disk that is divided in to pie shaped wedges called ___.
More than one sector comprises a ___.
Microsoft Windows calls a table a ___ that serves as a table of contents for the disk.
Versions of Microsoft Windows 7 and above use a system similar to FAT called ___ which is essentially an improved FAT.
In business, the most important aspects of data and information storage are storage ___.
___ refers to the amount of data and information a storage device can hold.
___ refers to the amount of time it takes to get data and information from a storage device to its user.
Every business needs to pay attention to ___, and data storage is no exception.
___ is when data that is no longer used on a daily basis is stored electronically, but may need to be accessed at a future date.
___ is a major consideration when it comes to selecting a storage device and strategy.
___ of a backup device is critical.
When considering types of data to back up, a business needs to determine ___ for the future.
Businesses need to determine how much ___ is available to backup files.
A ___ can be implemented that includes regularly scheduled backups.
___ is when a business suffers a disaster like Hurricane Katrina and needs to regain critical control of their company, much of which is to regain access to their critical data and information.
Simply enough, application software are programs like Microsoft Word or Adobe Photoshop that a person chooses to use as opposed to system software like an operating system that generally requires no ___.
A computer is made up of physical hardware and needs ___ to make it work correctly.
One of the most important aspects of system software is that the ___ is enabled and becomes a platform for application software to work.
Application software cannot ___ without an operating system.
Microsoft Office 2010’s and Microsoft Office 2008 for Mac’s most notable change was to replace menus with “___”.
___, like Microsoft Word 2010 and Microsoft Word 2008 for Mac allow a user to make document files.
___ presents an interface in grid of information separated by columns and rows, often financial information that is capable of calculation and graphing, and most importantly, “what-if” analysis.
___ is well thought-out collection of files that consist of records (rows) of data separated by fields (columns) that can be queried (questioned) to produce subsets of information.
In a DBMS, data is stored in computer files called ___, and tables are combined to other tables with related information, hence, a relational database.
Data warehousing allow businesses to store their history in relational databases, which is called ___.
___ are used to display information typically in a slide show.
Business presentation program are typically very easy to build, but can be ineffective if best practice are ___.
Presentations can become convoluted and confusing with ___.
Effective slides have no more than ___ lines of text, and each line should have no more than ___ words per line.
In business context, activities and methods are usually called processes, or a ___.
___ like Adobe Photoshop are application program that enable an end-user to manipulate visual images on a computer.
___ software is specialized application software that allows a user to create, publish, and administer web sites on the World Wide Web through the use of WYSIWYG interface.
(WYSIWYG is an acronym for “___”).
___ is the first consideration when building a business web site is why it exists in the first place.
An effective business website should consider ___ of the web site are and what their needs are before it is designed.
Once a web site has an intended purpose, it is important that the site contain ___.
Web sites should be easy to ___.
___ is a way of improving the volume and quality of traffic to a web site from search engines like Google and Yahoo.
One of the most powerful web authoring programs in the business environment is ___.
An ___ is a private computer network like the Internet that allows a business to securely share their organization’s information with its employees.
In business, it is important that document files can be used regardless of operating system platforms, whether they are Windows, Linux, Mac, UNIX, etc. This is referred to a ___.
It is important to note that multimedia software uses a tremendous amount of a personal computer’s resources, specifically its ___.
__ systems are application software that attempts to integrate all data and processes of an entire business into one integrated system.
A key feature of most ERP systems is the use of ___ that stores data for the assorted system modules, like accounting and human resources functions.
___ is a method of mutual learning between two or more people who are working together towards a common goal.
The main form of collaboration in business is called ___.
___ is basically a conversation with two or more participants to trade information and ideas, and also to build relationships.
Simply stated, ___, often called ___, is software that manages and controls the physical hardware of a computer so that application software can work.
___ softwares on the other hand are the programs that help an end-user do a particular task.
An ___ is a collection of computer programs that administers the hardware and software of a computer so it can work properly.
The ___ is the groundwork for all system software and performs important jobs like controlling memory, administrating input and output devices, and managing the filing system.
Every time computer is powered up, it needs to know what resources it has to work with, like programming files, expansion cards, and amount of random access memory. Loading the platform into the computer’s memory is called ___.
Powering up a computer on for the first time is called a ___, and a computer that is restarted while it was already running is called a ___.
___ is firmware programming embedded in to a computer chip, meaning the computer runs the same program every time it’s turned on.
The ___ contains settings like screen savers, appearance and personalization, and any other settings, whether chosen by the user or the default factory settings.
Once the hardware settings are determined, the operating system loads ___, like virus protection programs.
Although not necessary on a home computer, in business, it is extremely important that the operating system ___ a user to determine if they are the computer’s appropriate user.
Logging in to a business computer is a critical process that requires a known user to type in their name (usually designated by a system administrator) and password. Once the correct name and password are verified by the system, the user’s ___ is loaded.
___ are required to manage tasks like hardware setup and computer configuration, which themselves can be critical to protecting a company’s assets and intellectual property, but they are also called on to be a critical part of the entire business organization.
___ is actually the technique of breaking files requested from a secondary memory like a hard drive into smaller, more manageable files that can fit into RAM.
Simply put, a ___ is what the user sees on the monitor and provides the means in which a person can interact with the computer system, whether they are inputting to manipulate the system, or receiving output from their manipulation.
In a graphical user interface, the background displayed on the monitor is considered the ___ environment.
One of the primary functions of the ___ is to provide a way to launch, or star application software.
Once the application program is launched, it is rendered in a rectangular area on the desktop called a ___.
Some common features of a window are the “___”, “___”,”___”, and “___” buttons.
Since operating systems are multitasking and allow for more than one application software to run at a time, the window the user is currently using is referred to as the ___.
Microsoft is moving towards replacing menus and toolbars by essentially combining both with a graphical toolbar called a ___.
Many times a business will provide the basic desktop configuration to its employees to ensure ___, ___, and ___.
When a file is created, the user is prompted to save the file and give it a ___ and designate a ___ where it will reside on the computer’s file manager.
The file manager will show how big or small a file is in terms of ___.
An internal hard drive is an example of ___ media.
The disk is made up of concentric circular bands called ___ that are separated into wedges called ___.
To solve the problem of fragmentation, system software offers a program called ___, or ___ for short.
System software offers a ___ utility to ensure that data and information is safe.
Antivirus utilities are system software that identifies known viruses and attempts to ___ a computer system.
To compensate for any operating system inadequacies, companies like Microsoft offer a system software utility called ___.
________________ is the practice of applying computing resources resourcefully while reducing the use of hazardous materials, increasing energy efficiency, promoting recycling, and reducing waste created during a computer’s manufacturing.
-Network Interface Controller (NIC): card for each computer
-Protocol: standard language for computers to communicate
-Physical cables: connect them together
-Hub: a central location of the computer network that serves as a traffic cop for network connection and communication
Business to business
________________ (B2B) is businesses distributing, buying, selling, advertising, and marketing of goods or services over the Web to other businesses. B2B transactions are inclined to take place within specific categories.
Burning fossil fuels creates carbon dioxide (CO2) which builds up and slows the escape of heat into space, therefore creating a “____________”.