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MIS - (Management Information System) - development and use of information that help businesses achieve goals
ITM - (Information Technology Management) - embedded into an IS system to help accomplish objectives
Organization, communication and problem-solving.
Note: she did not mention computers!!!
Knowing how to employ the system means understanding and deciding how to make use of the information system you have or are going to create. You would want to know what your companys needs are going to be in an IS.
IS and IT differ because the IT must be embedded into the IS in order for the IS to accomplish the main goal.
Computer Hardware - Needed for the IT and IS. Software runs off the computer hardware, and without hardware it would not be possible to run the software.
Computer Software - The uses of the computer such as Word or Excel.
Data - Raw information processed by a human or a computer. Data is used by both the hardware and software.
Procedures - Everything has a certain order that it has to happen. This equallibrium keeps the system running smoothly. Without procedure data would never be entered into the computer, nor would it be processed correctly into the software and hardware parts.
A ‘stakeholder’ would be someone who gains the benefits of the end goal of the company/project.
The Creator - makes more money as people join Facebook.
The User - interacts with their family/friends.
The Advertiser - releases ads through the IS
Needing to develop an information system for the right reasons would include to provide a service or fix a problem.
Security issues need to be addressed when developing a webpage so ensure the safety of the webpage. Taking caution can help the company prevent hackers and scammers from taking over the website.
Ex1: Even if there is no personal information exposed on the website, hackers might still be able to infect the website itself and others who visit the website simply by clicking on it. This will effect the company because if their website is known to give people virus’, the amount of business they get will decrease.
Ex2: Hackers could easily manipulate the website and start asking for personal information from the users. This puts the users at risk as well as the company who might then be charged for stealing funds from users, even if it was a hacker and not actually the company itself.
In order to gain a competitive advantage when creating an IS is to create innovative applications using emerging technology.
Moore’s Law believes that the size of things, such as a computer chip, is constantly increasing in space, yet shrinking in size.
MP3 - All MP3’s are consistently shrinking in size, but their ability to retain information is growing larger and larger.
Being a hybrid manager means being able to create detailed work, know how to organize and have negotiating skills.
Two dimensions of collaboration means that there are two key aspects of successful collaboration. These two dimensions are people/skills and project nature.
People within a team must assess their strengths, skills and weaknesses. A person with few skills with be ordered to complete a specific part of a project while a person with many skills will be ordered and able to complete a more complex part of a project. Team Management will focus on the one skilled person differently than the multi-skilled person. For example, team management will focus on skill sharing for a poorly skilled person and focus on interdependence for a multi-skilled person.
Single product = Building construction
A useful Information system that could help with collaboration is something like google docs. Blueprints can be shared with construction engineers to keep each other updated on what others are doing and how their project is coming along.
Also, a group text chat could be a unique way for each engineer to be talking to each other and letting everyone know what they are doing at a specific point in time. Same goes for other departments that work towards single product. Perhaps engineers would need more supply and would need a way to contact the accountants that would go about ordering the supplies.
In a regular company we have team members that know only one skill all the time. If we were creating let’s say a video game, there are many people with only one skill involved. Graphic designers, software developers, marketing teams would all want to connect in someway.
Information systems support written communications by email, IM, blogs, wikis and team portals. Information systems introduce IM-instant messages through mobile devices in which people can write one another messages.
Information systems support verbal communications through phone, voip and podcasts. For example, information systems introduce Podcasts which are digital audio files which can be downloaded and played.
Workflow control - monitor the execution of team’s processes such as ordering tasks, processes for handling rejected changes and dealing with exceptions.
Content management – Information systems that are used to create, manage or deliver documents. For example, how do I label this so I can find it later?
Processed data is good when it is easy to understand and follow. A good example of this is a solved math problem with clear steps and handwriting that someone could easily follow along with.
Yes you can have too much information. Barely sufficient is the best of information. It gives you the amount of information you need and nothing more. Therefore you know everything you are reading is important. Too much information is a bad thing. That means there will be too much meaningless stuff and it could be hard to see which information is important.
Two examples are accounting problem or math word problems. They often have too much information which confuses you. Just barely sufficient is something like directions you get for assembling a desk or Legos. They only give you the info you need to get the job done, that is it.
Activities – An example of this is doing your job!
Resources – Employees and customers are resources
Facilities – The building and or places in which some type of business process is being conducted
Activities use information. This means taking information and making use of it, or taking the information and creating something out of it.
Relevant - You want your information being relevant because if it is not then you are paying someone to take to much time to understand the information.
On time - For obvious reasons, if info isn’t received in time assumptions and guesses could be made which mostly always lead in bad business.
Accurate -. If information isn’t accurate then an airbag could go off in a car a second late or go off without being in a accident
Activities can be fully automated or mostly automated. Assembly line (automobile industry)
Using resources can be somewhat automated – Automated callers reminding someone they have an appointment.
The difference between egocentric and empathetic thinking is that egocentric people think the world revolves around them as empathetic thinking people are usually thinking of others or feel bad for others. An egocentric thought would be a worker saying “ I NEVER MESS UP AT WORK BUT NANCY OVER HERE MESSES UP AND SHE STILL GETS PAID MORE THEN ME AND GETS MORE TIME OFF” Empathetic thinking is “well nancy hasn’t made many mistakes while working here but since her husband’s passing she has made a few more, in time she will be back to her normal working state.”
Structured (you know what to do)
An understood and accepted method for making the decision.
the employees are used to solve the problems
made for routine task
Ex: Companies spend thousands of dollars for web developers to organize data on web pages and websites, so there is order to content
Unstructured (don’t know what to do)
no agreement on decision making process
Operational - Decisions about day-to-day activities.
An example would be scheduling employee requirements for the next day. Janitors, waiters, chefs and hosts duties at a restaurant would all be scheduled based on their skill level.
Managerial - Decisions about the allocation and utilization of resources.
An example would be deciding to reorder office supplies.
Strategic - Decisions about broader-scope, organizational issues.
Identifying decision/problem to be made
Make a choice
Implement the decision
Systems that augment, support or supplement work done by people to aid in decision making
Ex: email, video conference, instant messaging could be used to make managerial or strategic decisions for the company
Humans do a bulk of the work
Used by people who want to communicate timely and efficiently so it doesn’t take away too much focus from other projects
Bargaining power of customers - buyer volume, buyer info, brand identity, price sensitivity, product differentiation, etc.
Threat of substitution - switching costs, buyer inclination to substitute, price-performance trade-off of substitutes.
Bargaining power of suppliers - supplier concentration, importance of volume to supplier, presence of substitute inputs, cost relative to total purchases in industry.
Threat of new entrants - absolute cost advantages, brand identity, government policy, economics of scale, proprietary products.
Rivalry among existing firms - exit barriers, industry concentration, industry growth, diversity of rivals, product differences.
Using the housing industry (in the current market) as an example, give 3 examples of how the intensity of the rivalry is influenced and the impact/result.
Buyer vs buyer
Realtors vs realtors
Information systems that stores, manages and delivers documents Web pages and graphics
i. Functions are complex
ii. Documents must be translated into all languages before publishingiii. Document contents are perishable (become obsolete)
Explain what a content management system is. Provide 3 very specific examples of challenges in designing / maintaining a content management system.
It’s an intangible asset
i. Value increases as more people share it
Has different forms
Has a location
It is situational
A system that processes value from intellectual capital
Fear of losing competitive advantage
Fear of looking incompetent
anticipate, predict, or determine an unknown outcome? Why or why not (explain clearly!)?
Rule-based systems that encode human knowledge
A manager needs to know about hardware and software in order to understand the basic categories. This will also save money for the company because it means hiring one less person
Input - keyboard/mouse
Processing - CPU, main memory
Output - printers, speakers
The client is making a request, and the server is working to fulfill that request.
Thin client does not have much processing power
Think client has a lot of processing power
The Sixth Sense is a wearable gesture technology which lets you use your hands to project information on any surface available.
If you want to know the time of day, simple draw a clock on your wrist.
If you wish to take a picture of something, one just simply needs to form a square with both thumbs and index fingers, and a picture will be taken.
Displays a cloud of information about the person standing in front of you.
Grid Computing is a collection of computer resources, from multiple locations, to reach a common goal.
RAM is used to store memory from random locations. It is a volatile memory and it requires power in order to keep accessing the data. Once the power is lost, the data is lost as well.
Cache is a high speed access area that can be either a reserved section of main memory or storage memory.
Cache is volatile, like RAM, it will go away if powered down.
Open source means that the source code of the program is available to the public. The source code is available to the public and can be modified by anyone.
Ex: Wikipedia - Everyone can make changes.
Buy: the quickest and least risky option is to buy a off the shelf software. You can get the soft immediately and you know exactly what it will cost but it may not fit your requirements fully.
Build or customizing software is difficult and risk. Managing a software team is a challenging and it takes twice as long if not longer. Every application program needs to be adapted to changing needs and changing technology and for custom software developed in house the company must pay for all the adaptation costs.
Virus may delete files
Virus’s can make your computer run slower
Hardware/software leasing of server resources.
Benefits: the amount of server time and the resources leased is flexible and can change dynamically and also customers pay for the resources used. It also allows multiple organization to use the same computing infrastructure
You need to have internet
You rely on someone else to protect your stuff
Virtualization is multiple operating systems sharing the same hardware.
CPU: selects instructions, processes them, perform arithmetic and logical comparisons , and stores results of operations in memory.
Main memory : consists of circuitry for storing data and instructions that are acted by the CPU. Sometimes called ram (random access memory)
Magnetic disks : is a long-term, nonvolatile storage, records data in concentric circles.
A Magnetic disk provides long-term nonvolatile storage.
Speed - Time required to read data depends on the rotational delay and seek time.
An NIC device is a device which is supported through wired or wireless connections.
A computer needs this when they need to add different devices to the computer which are not already included in the computer itself.
Horizontal market application software provides capabilities common across all organization and industries for vertical market application software serves the needs of a specific industry.
Horizontal market software can be used by anyone and everyone: business owner to student.
2. Design Process Identifies
3. Normalization- Streamlining complex group. of data to min. redundant data elements
4. Entity-relationship diagram
5. Distrib. database: store database in more than one place
Normalization converts tables into two or more tables. It changes things from being poorly structured to well-structured.
Two problems that would occur if the tables are not normalized would be 1. different names for the same entity, 2. procedure incorrect and inconsistent information.
Entity - Generalized class of people, places, or things for which data is collected, stored, and maintained.
Attribute - Characteristic of an entity.
A Primary Key is a field or set of fields that uniquely identifies the record.
A Foreign Keys are keys in a different table than the one in which they reside.
Primary key is the unique identifier -- so for example, a student ID. If I know your SID I can determine your entire row/ record from that.
What is meant by “Business Intelligence”? Explain. What does it do? What is it used for?
Business Intelligence is the process of gathering enough of the right information in a timely manner and usable form and analyzing it to have a positive impact on business strategy , tactics, or operations.
Data mining is an information-analysis tool that involves the automated discovery of patterns and relationships in a data warehouse. Goes behind the facts. Looks at probability.
The roles of users and stakeholders in database development are that they get the final judgment of what the data should contain; they determine how records are related to each other; review data model; insure that model reflects an accurate view of the business.
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