small tsu indicates the following consonant is doubled. can also appear at end of utterances ti indicate ‘glottal stop’. cannot be used to double na,ni,nu,ne or no syllables,to double these ‘n’ is used
long vowel mark’—‘ used in katakana,rarely in hiragana
trailing off sounds
small versions of vowel kana used as trailing off sounds.
dakuten marker (“)
a voiceless consonant is turned into a voiced consonant: k=g,ts/s=z,t=d,h=b,ch/sh=j